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Bio 11 Cheat Sheet template

Bio 11 :


Outline to make a viable “resource” sheet for Bio 11


  • Take this information and put into a landscape format so you have more room to write down information.
  • Use both written and drawn diagrams to explain information.
  • Use colour coding to identify facts.
  • Always use an example to explain concepts in vocab.


Good luck!



Topic Questions Fill in for answer
DNA How would you label a DNA molecule?


Look for :

What is a nucleotide?

Where are the sugar and phosphates?

What is a nitrogen base?

Which nitrogen bases link up?

When making a protein from DNA, what is the sequence?

What would a copy of DNA look like for mRNA.


If you had a table with tRNA code, how would that transcribe into a sequence of amino acids

If you had a sequence of DNA, how could you make a sequence of mRNA and then using a tRNA table find out the final amino acids in a protein.


What are three functions of DNA?


Include a copy of DNA drawing with labels
Evolution Homologous structures are the result of what processes in evolution?

What is a vestigial structure?

What are the four types of indirect proof and how would similar genes be used to show evolution?


Define: (always have an example)

Convergent evolution

Divergent evolution


Punctuated evolution


Evolution (4)

Genetic drift

Gene flow


Natural selection



Which two scientists published the idea of natural selection?

How why genetic drift, natural selection and gene flow all depend upon mutations.


Explain how reproductive isolation is different than geographic isolation.


Using a graph, can you explain and give an example of how gradual change is different than punctuated equilibrium?


Taxonomy What is the correct order (going from least to most specific classification) in biology?


In a binomial name, the first and second name signify what terms in Taxonomy?


How can you use the classification terminology (KPCOFGS) to see which species may be closer related?



Vocab (include examples)

·      Heterotrophic

·      Autotropic

·      Eukaryote

·      Prokaryote

·      Taxonomy

·      Monera

·      Fungi

·      Plantae

·      Animalia


Chapter One review What are the four theories all about?

·      Cell Theory

·      Gene Theory

·      Biogenesis Theory

·      Evolution


What is a hypothesis?

·      Is it a concept supported by experiments?

·      A result of deductive reasoning?

·      A tentative explanation of the results of an experiment?

·      A tentative explanation of observed phenomena?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Evolution Review

Bio 11 Evolution Review



Chapter Topic Question
1 Cells ·      Why is a cell considered to be the fundamental unit of life?


    ·      If the theory of abiogenesis was true, then spontaneous generations would come from where?


  Review cheat sheet


Use these questions to make an efficient cheat sheet. Remember..adapt or die!
2 Adaptions ·      What do desirable adaptions allow a species to do?

·      Variations in a population are usually the result of what?

·      What is an inheritable trait?

·      What is a species and how is it formed?


  Fossils ·      What two species could be an example of a grassland animals in two different geographic zones that look similar and that show convergence? Think of pouches and antlers.


  Indirect proof ·      If chicken embryo’s look like rabbit embryo’s then what is the indirect proof to show these two species may be related?

·      What is the concept of biochemical evidence based upon?


    ·      How does sexual reproduction help evolution verses asexual reproduction?

( which makes more diversity/)

·      What is an isolation barrier that cannot be overcome?(see above)


3 Evolution mechanisms ·      What is the basic meaning for the term “evolution’?

·      What is “fixity of species”?

·      What was the original source of variation within the English peppered moth?

·      If an inheritable variation produces a structural or physiological adaption, what must that adaption allow the species to do?


  Lamarck ·      What are Lamarck’s two laws?

·      What words would be used in a question that would show consistency with Lamarck

·      What is the majour weakness in Lamarck’s theory?


  Darwin ·      In Darwin’s theory of evolution, what source of change did Darwin not use nor was he aware of?

·      Why would the word’s “survive and produce” be associated with Darwin’s arguments about the mechanisms for evolution.

·      In Darwin’s theory, what is the force with changes the species trait like the long neck of a giraffe?

·      What is not explained in Darwin’s theory of evolution?

·      In Darwin’s first portion of his argument what concept did he borrow from Malthus?

·      You need to know all six steps of Darwin’s argument and show examples.

·      Can you compare statements that would support or challenge both Darwin and Lamark’s theories of evolution.


  Fill in the blank words ·      Adaptive radiation

·      Isolation mechanisms

·      Failure to adapt results in…?

·      Fossil

·      Homologous

·      Analogous

·      Vestigial

·      Convergence

·      Divergence

·      Artificial selection

·      Natural selection

·      Fixity of species


  Short Answer Topics 1)   What are four categories of indirect or direct evidence. (Describe and discuss)


2)   What are five reasons why fossil records are sometimes difficult to interpret.


3)   Using the concept of speciation, isolation mechanisms and Darwin’s theory, explain why there are 14 species of finches in the Galopagos Islands.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Quiz Review (Chapter 3)

Chapter Two: Evidence of Evolution Quiz

Topic One: Definitions

  • Adaptive radiation
  • Divergent evolution
  • Convergent evolution
  • Isolation mechanisms
  • Speciation
  • Geographic isolation
  • Ecological isolation
  • Morphological isolation
  • Behavioral isolation
  • Reproductively incompatibility
  • Evolution
  • Extinction

Specific questions about “Adaption”

  1. When is a population considered to be adapted to its environment?
  2. What would make an adaption desirable?
  3. Do all adaptions need to be morphological?
  4. What are four types of adaptions for a duck?


Can be defined as:

  • A process by which populations exhibit gradual changes over several generations.
  • Is a theory that best describes how species living today are descendants of species of the past generations?
  • Provides an explanation of how the biological diversity present today

Directed Evidence

  1. The most impressive direct evidence of evolution comes from the study of what biological structures?
  2. What type of soil are fossils found in?
  3. Where would you most likely find fossils?
  4. How are fossils linked to how the earth’s plates move?
  5. What gas allowed more speciation to occur?
  6. Why would the fossil records of reptiles and mollusk be easier to find that flatworms?
  7. How are some chemical ways to figure out how old a fossil is?
  8. What are four problems with using fossils as direct evidence?
  9. What is convergence and divergence and how would that be linked to the Pangaea theory?

Indirect evidence

  1. How could embryos of an organism be linked to how they have evolved?
  2. What are examples of vestigial structures that could be used both for embryonic and morphological indirect evidence?
  3. Homologous and Analogous structures show what sort of evidence?
  4. Why is biochemical evidence said to show “a degree to which most species are related?
  5. What would be the different between biochemical and physiologic indirect evidence?
  6. If two species had the same type of enzymatic protein, what type of evidence would this be?

Speciation and Isolation mechanisms (remember drawing).

  1. What is the distinction between a “mechanism” and a process like “speciation”?
  2. How would populations change with isolation mechanisms?
  3. How could one species of birds look different than a related species found on the other side of a mountain range?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Quiz One Review Notes

Quiz one: Review


Topic One:


Scientific method


  • A scientific inquiry always begins with an observation.
  • In an observation you can look for both quantitative and qualitative factors.
  • Now you proposes a hypothesis to explain your observations.
  • You may infer, looking at your observations, a possible cause and effect relationship.


Points about a hypothesis


  • It must be testable
  • It must be a tentative explaination of observed phenomena
  • As a formal hypothesis, it should include the word “if” for the independent variable and “then” for the dependent variable.
  • A hypothesis can be supported by testing that hypothesis


The process of the scientific method includes:

  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Theory
  • Law


All experiments are subject to change and can have experimental error.


In a controlled experiment, there is no experimental variable.


Within the scientific community experiments are given to scientific journals for peer review.


We will need to be aware of four theories

  • Evolutionary theory
  • Gene theory
  • Abiogenesis
  • Cell Theory



The study of how organisms are classified is called taxonomy.

  • A binomial name includes both the genus and the species.
  • A binomial name begins with the genus and then the species, much like your last name then your first.
  • In order from many organisms to specific species is :
  • Kingdom: Example Animal Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Genus
  • Species: note that species are defined by the fact that they reproduce with each other.
  • Levels of organization
  • Cells can be classified as:
  • Prokaryote: an organism that has no nucleus, no organelles, no cytoplasmic streaming .


If we start off with a cell being the lowest level of organization, then levels of complexity and interaction are:

Cell to tissue

Tissue to organ

Organ to system


Now we are looking at specific species.


A number of individual species is a population

A number of population with other populations is a community.

If we consider both living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) factors we are now considering an ecosystem.

Several ecosystems together is referred to as a biome.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Chordate Review

Chordate Study Guide


  1. What are the 4 characteristics shared by all chordates (4 marks)
  2. The adult seasquirt (Urochordata) has only one of the characteristics of the phylum chordata.
  3. Which characteristic does it have? (Urochordate)
  4. Why is it still considered a member of phylum chordata?(Urochordata)
  5. What is the main function of the kidney in a freshwater fish?
  6. Describe 3 adaptations of reptiles to living on land (3 reasons)
  7. Which class do Snake, lizards, crocodiles, and turtles belong to?
  8. Which class do Wolves, whales and humans belong to?
  9. The circulatory system of an adult frog consists of
  10. Jaws first occurred in which of the following classes?
  11. Characteristics shared by both reptiles and birds are
  12. Mammals that are born in an immature state and then continue their developement in a pouch on the mother are called
  13. Which of the following is a member of the Class Osteichthyes
  14. What are the parts of an amiotic egg and their function?
  15. Which chordate class contains animals that use a rasping tongue to obtain food?
  16. What are the three main characteristics of the Class Mammalia?
  17. Did mammals coexist with dinosaurs?
  18. What was the earliest mammal a predator or herbivore?
  19. Which modern chordate group is thought to be most like the earliest chordates?
  20. The invertebrate phylum most closely related to chordates is?
  21. What are the charactertistic of birds that only they have?
  22. Which chordate has no lungs?
  23. What does the circulatory system of a bony fish consists of?
  24. The mammalian umbilical cord has evolved from which two parts of the reptile egg?
  25. Which of the chordates are an Endotherm (“warm-blooded”)?
  26. The amniote egg first evolved in which of the following groups?
  27. What is the purpose of the allantois in the amniotic egg?
  28. What for nitrogen was does the mammalian kidney excrete?
  29. Which chordate has teeth in their jaws?
  30. Which chordate class has the most diversity?
  31. Which chordate class can live in the most diverse habitats.
  32. Which chordate class can fly, swim, and crawl?
  33. Which chordate has metamorphosis?
  34. Which chordates have hair?
  35. Which chordates have fur?
  36. Which chordates have lungs and claws?
  37. As chordates evolved onto land which systems changed?
  38. As chordates evolved how do reproductive strategies change?
  39. What are example of symbiosis in chordates?
  40. How do skin tissues change with the evolution of chordates?
  41. If a predatory bird population is hunting just mice, what is the ecological association between the two species?
  42. If one species of fish is eating the same food as another species, what ecological relationship is this?
  43. What three strategies do mammals have for gestation of their young?
  44. What is the difference between viviparous and oviparous?
  45. How are the lungs of a bird different ?
  46. Which chordates have urea?
  47. Which chordates have ammonia?
  48. Which chordates have uric acid?
  49. What is the advantage of teeth in sockets?
  50. Which chordate does not have teeth?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Chordata and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Test 8 Review questions

Test 8 Molusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata Review


  1. What is the name of the principal body cavity of molluscs? (Think about movies scenes)
  2. Lit 3 benefits of the arthropod exoskeleton (3 marks)
  3. Your friend claims a spider dropped down from the ceiling and ate a piece of her apple. Give two reasons why this is not possible. (2 reasons)
  4. List and explain three ways that a squid is adapted for a predatory lifestyle (3 reasons)
  5. Describe how a sea star uses its water vascular system in feeding.
  6. Which phylum do Clams, snails, sea slugs, and octopi belong?
  7. Which invertebrate animals does NOT have a true coelom?
  8. What are of the features of molluscs?
  9. What characteristics do all arthropods have?
  10. Sometimes you can find clamshells with small round holes in them on the beach. The hole was made by a sea snail. Which body part did the sea snail use to make the hole?
  11. Can you match structures with  animal phylla ? Can you identify which structures do NOT belong to the same group as the others?
  12. Malpighian tubules are found in which phylum?
  13. Malpighian tubules are part of which organ system?
  14. Can you match common names for Mollusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata?
  15. Spiders belong to which taxonomical class?
  16. Which class do snails belong to?
  17. Spiracles and trachea are found in the grasshopper’s
  18. What is the function of Arthropod blood
  19. An organ or structure of the female grasshopper, used to form short tunnels to lay egg in is called?
  20. Which phylum contains the most intelligent invertebrates?
  21. What are common structures shared by both Echinodermata and Arthropoda?
  22. What body part does a spider use to breathe?
  23. Do starfish have a carapace?
  24. Can you label all the structures on a squid diagram?
  25. What structure do land snails use to obtain oxygen?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Mollusca and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Worm Exam Review

Worms Exam Review


  1. The body of a segmented worm is divided into segments, separated by what structure?
  2. Which worm has a proglottid and what does it do?
  3. What is the tough outer covering of a nematode called?
  4. What tissue is a coelom lined with?
  5. What is cephalization?
  6. In which worm phylum/phyla do the members have a developed circulatory system?
  7. In what way is the digestive system of the roundworm considered more advanced than that of the flatworm? (2 reasons)
  8. Why is cephalization associated with motility? (2 reasons)
  9. Which characteristics do flatworms share with hydra?
  1. What is a structure or characteristics are shared by all the worm phyla?
  1. In which of the worm phyla do blood vessels appear?
  1. Which of worms have a complete one-way digestive tract
  1. A fluid-filled, mesoderm-lined body cavity is known as a
  1. How would you list worm phyla from least to most advanced?
  2. Which type of worms (common names) are found in phylum Annelida?
  3. How do Annellia worms breath or respire?
  4. What is an organ designed to grind food in the Annelid digestive system?
  5. If an organism is a hermaphrodite what organs would it have?i
  6. What is the dorsal saddle like structure called in segmented worms called and what is it’s function?
  7. What are some common names for both parasitic and free living Nematods?
  8. What is a concentration of nervous tissue that functions as a simple brain is called
  9. What is the function of the scolex?
  10. Looking at a cladogram , what is an evolutionary development first seen in Nematodes?
  11. Which worm has a closed circulatory system?
  12. What is th most highly developed organ system in a tapeworms ?
  13. Why are adult tapeworms have reduced or absent digestive systems?
  14. To avoid being infected by the trichinella worm what should you do?
  15. Proper sewage treatment could control which types of worms (common names like blood worms, flukes or latin names?
  16. What is the order in which food pass down the digestive system of an earthworm?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Worms and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Cnidarian and Porifera Review

Porifera and Cnidaria Exam Review




  • How many types of Porifera are there and how are they classified?
  • What are the Characteristics of poriferans (sponges) ?
  • What are the structures called on collar cells that move to create currents, moving water in and out of the sponge?
  • Which class of Poriferan contains spongin in its body?
  • What are the Characteristics of poriferans (sponges) ?
  • Adult sponges cannot move – how do sponges manage to colonize new areas?
  • Why does a sponge need to pump water through its body?
  • A sponge skeleton is made up of: (not calcium carbonate but the name of the structures)
  • The way that Poriferans (sponges) obtain food is by this process:
  • What is the middle layer of a sponge called?
  • In sponges, which cell type has flagella?
  • Through which structure does water enter a sponge? (not a pore)
  • The cells that move around the in the body of the sponge and ingest food particles are called?
  • Water movement through a sponge would follow which path?
  • Where does fertilization occur in a sponge?





  • Can you recognize the structures of a cross section of a polyp and a medusa?
  • A jellyfish can sting even after it is dead. How can this be?
  • How do Cnidarians get rid of metabolic wastes?
  • Characteristics of cnidarians (jellyfish, etc)?
  • A concentration of nerves and sensory organs at one end of an organism is called?
  • What is the advantage of a medusa form of a cnidarian (2)
  • What part of the Cnidarian life cycle is formed by budding?
  • What are the stinging cell and stinging structures called in a hydra called?
  • Which kind of digestive and circulatory system do Cnidarians have?
  • Which kind of symmetry do Cnidarians have?
  • What is the inner layer of cells in Cnidarians called?
  • Which layer of cells is missing in Cnidarians?
  • Which part of a Cninarian’s life cycle is sessile?
  • Some hydras are said to be “hermaphroditic”, what does that mean?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Cnidaria and have No Comments

Bacteria review


Acme Review for Virus, Immune and Bacteria Test




  • How are viruses classified?
  • What are the structures of a bacteriophage?
  • What are the structures within a retrovirus?
  • How do you identify the difference between viral capsid and viral envelop?
  • What type of viral cycle make makes cancer?
  • When is a virus virulent?
  • What is a retrovirus and how does it work?
  • What happens in a lytic cycle of a virus?
  • What happens in a latent cycle of a virus?
  • What happens in a mutagenic cycle of a virus?
  • In animal viruses the viral envelope is made of what?
  • What is a prophage



Immune system

  • What are examples of nonspecific defenses in your body?
  • What is a humoral response?
  • What is a cell mediated response
  • What is the difference between a T Cell and B Cell?
  • How is HIV related to T helper cells?
  • Why do pharmaceutical companies have to keep creating new flu vaccines?
  • How does a vaccine work?
  • How does the immunes system work against viruses?
  • How does the immune system work against bacteria?
  • What is the difference between passive and active immunity?
  • Can you use antibiotics against a virus? Why?
  • What is a monoclonal antibody and how can it be used?
  • How is a plasma cell related to a memory cell?





  • How are bacteria (eubacteria) classified?
  • What are bacteria that can survive without oxygen?
  • What is a chemosynthetic bacteria and how could it be identified?
  • What are two properties of all monera?
  • What is prokaryote and what features do they have?
  • What is a whip like structure used for locomotion in bacteria?
  • What is a saprophyte?
  • What are the differences between fermentation and cellular respiration?
  • An organism that produce it’s own food is called what?
  • Rod shape bacteria are called what?
  • In a diagram, can you explain primitive sexual reproduction in a bacteria?
  • Most bacteria reproduce by what process?
  • What is an endospore and how does it work?
  • Why has the classification of kingdom Monera switched into Archeo, Eubacteria and cyanobacteria?
  • New stem cells research is now inserting DNA into bacteria, why could this be both good and bad?
  • If you were infected by a gram negative bacteria what would you be prescribed?
  • If you were infected by a gram positive bacteria what would you be prescribed?
  • Explain four reasons why bacteria can be helpful to humans?
  • What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
  • If a chemical is released by a bacteria and it is then denatured by heat and then injected into a host, it is called what?
  • What does a vaccines made of ?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Bacteria Vocab

Bacteria Vocab List


1. Aerobic  
2. Anaerobic  
3. Anaerobic respiration  
4. antibiotic  
5. Antitoxin  
6. Autotrophic  
7. Bacillus  
8. Binary Fission  
9. Blue green algae  
10. Cell wall  
11. Chemosynthetic  
12. Chemotaxia  
13. Chemotherapy  
14. Cocci  
15. Conjugation  
16. Endospore  
17. Fermentation  
18. Flagella  
19. Heterotrophic  
20. Pathogen  
21. Penicillin  
22. Photo taxis  
23. Photosynthetic  
24. Pplo  
25. Respiration  
26. Rickettsia  
27. Spirochetes  
28. Staphylococci  
29. Streptococci  
30. Streptomycin  
31. Toxin  
32. Vaccine  
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio,Microbio and have No Comments