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Life Sciences Evolution Exam Guide

Acme Guide: Evolution exam


Cell Theory What are the key points regarding this theory?

Why is a cell a fundamental unit of life?

Abiogenesis In this theory, where did new species come from?
  How is “fixity of species” related to theory of evolution?

Why does sexual reproduction contribute to diversity of species?

What is the most reliable method to dating the earth’s age?

When is a population considered adapted to minor environmental fluctuations (changes).

How is an inherited variation related to the environment?

What are two examples of the rate of change in evolution?

What are four definitions of evolution and why?

(consider process, theory, change in gene pool and diversity in species)

How is structure and function related homologous, analogous and vestigial structures?

What are four forms of indirect evidence? Provide an example.

What are three reasons why fossils may create some confusion in regards to creating a phylogenic tree.

Lamarck Did the organism change to the environment or did the environment change the organism in Lamarck’s theory and law?

What was his theory?

What was his law?

What are some examples of his theory and law?

What is an example of “an acquired characteristic”

  What are Darwin’s six specific points?

How did Darwin link “natural selection” to “artificial selection”?

Why is struggle for existence linked to Malthus

Why is Wallace linked to “survival of fittest”?

In both Lamarck’s and Darwin’s theories, is the source of genetic variability discussed? Why not?

Darwin’s ideas was based upon overpopulation and survival of the fittest, why?

Evolution in action In the case study of English Peppered Moths, what is the source for change in colour of the moth?

In the case study on amino acids and insects, how is biochemical indirect evidence linked to “degree of relatedness”?

  In the case study with mosquitos and DDT, some mosquitos developed resistance to DDT. How would Lamarck and Darwin explain this?
  If an animal “develops” a trait to catch prey, is this a proof of an acquired characteristic?
  Lamarck states some animals “develop” an acquired characteristic vs Darwin says “nature selects”. What is the difference in the role of environment on the organism for these two theories?
  In the case study of horses, what type of selection and rate of evolution is occurring?

In the “Barbellus” lab, how is geological evidence linked to phylogenetic trees?

  If an organism does not have “genetic potential” to adapt then the species becomes what?

What does the term “assurance” mean?

What does “fundamental” mean?

What does “fluctuate” mean?

  What is directional selection? Example


  What is stabilizing selection? Example
  What is disruptive selection? Example
  What is an example of evidence that is not indirect evidence?
  What is the difference between convergence and coevolution?
  What is “speciation” and how is it linked to isolation mechanisms?


  How is speciation linked to adaptive radiation?
  How is adaptive radiation linked to divergence of a species?
  In an interbreeding population of organisms, what is a fertile offspring called?

If two species interbreed and create nonfertile species, what are they called?

  If someone visited the Hawaiian Islands and noticed 10 species of butterflies while going from island to island, how could they explain the diversity of species by looking at Darwin’s evidence in the Galapagos Islands? What would be the role of isolation mechanisms, adaptive radiation, overpopulation, fitness of species and types of selections such as disruptive, stabilizing and directional selection.
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Life Science Acme Guide for Chapter 3 Quiz

Acme Guide for Chapter 3


  1. Darwin’s importance of competition and or struggle for existence came from which author/researcher?
  2. What was the essay by Malthus called and how was it linked to Darwin’s ideas?
  3. Step by step, what are the six point that Darwin uses to explain his theory of evolution and natural selection?
  4. Which evolutionary theorist used the giraffe to show use and disuse?
  5. What is the difference between the theory of disuse and use and law of acquired characteristics?
  6. If an organism was intentionally changes such as chopping off tails or cutting ears (such as some dog species) and the pups were still born with tales, which theory could this evidence challenge?
  7. Recalling the industrial melanism case study, how did the moth originally get the black colour?
  8. Darwin fostered the idea of both natural and artificial selection, what would be an example of artificial related to domestic animal stocks?
  9. If the environment selects a specific trait in an insect population, whose theory would. This evidence supports?
  10. If a population in a cold and dry environment has a warm protective covering as a form of an adaption that allows the species survive and produce more offspring, whose theory is supported by this evidence?
  11. Could birth rate be influenced by getting long legged bird species bottoms wet?
  12. Was the source of variability in a species every discussed in Darwin’s theory?
  13. What is the process of multiplication of species called?
  14. What is an example and definition for term hybrid? Can some hybrids become infertile?
  15. What is a preserved imprint of a former living organism foot called?
  16. In a short passage of geological time there is a rapid change in morphology, unlike gradual model of change, this is called what?
  17. According do Darwin the story behind why there were 14 different species in the Galapagos islands is due to a variety of variables.
  18. Were there natural predators?
  19. Where did the original species come from?
  20. Was there an abundance of food for just one type of species?
  21. How is speciation linked to natural selection? (for example, how isolation mechanisms influence which species survives? Could you give an example?
  22. How did diversity in population influence which birds, iguanas and even tortoise to survive.
  23. If a bird species did not have a specific trait or shape of beak, could it survive on another island? Why?
  24. Could you use the answers from the above questions to explain speciation and natural selection in the Galapagos island?


Study resource at blog is file is “Lumen Biology Resources”

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Life sciences Acme Guide

Acme Guide Test One


Scientific Method Focus Question Resources from class
Taxonomy   7 in text and Unit E in study guide
  How is a binomial name created for an organism? Worksheets
  What are the two parts of a binomial name?  
  Which comes first in a binomial name, genus or species? Why is one name capitalized?  
  Are species classified by their presumed evolutionary relationship?  
  What is the scientific name for humans?  
  According to the binomial classifications system, what phylum do humans belong to?  
  According to the binomial classification system, what class do humans belong to?  
  According to the binomial classification system, what family do humans belong to?  
  Why is Latin used to classify living things?  
  Does a dichotomous key consider evolution?  
  Do dichotomous keys use qualitative or quantitative properties of a living things?  
  What is the difference between a dichotomous key and a phylogenetic key?  
Five Kingdoms of life What is the sequence of most diverse life forms to specific life forms, starting with the idea of Kingdoms Chapter 1

Worksheet and handout

  Which kingdom do Bacteria and cyanobacteria belong to?  
  Molds and mushrooms belong to which kingdom?  
  Moss and ferns belong to which kingdom  
  Humans belong to which kingdom?  
  What is the taxonomic sequence starting from the most specific to the most diverse?  
  Where the kingdoms of life made up prior to any theories?  
  How are prokaryotes and eukaryotes similar and different?  
  How do kingdoms help explain the number of cells and organism has?  
  How do kingdoms help explain specific activities of life?  
Scientific Method All scientific inquiries begin with what activity? 1
  What is a theory?  
  What does biology prefer objective vs subjective inquiry?  
  What is the Cell theory  
  What is the Gene Theory  
  What is the Theory of abiogenesis?  
  What is the evolutionary theory?  
  A tentative explanation of an observation is what?  
  If someone proposed a testable idea and after many different types of tests of that idea what would you have?  
  What is the proper sequence of the scientific method starting with a testable idea?  
  Do the conclusions of an experiment ever change?  
  Why do scientist use something called the scientific method?  
  Can a hypothesis be proven true?  
  What is the definition of a control?  
  What is the experimental variable and what is its function?  
  Do scientist report all their findings as a newspaper article?  
  What is the last step of the scientific method and can it change?  
  If something is proposed to be “true” in science, what is it referred to as?  
  Do all scientific experiments need to be published?  
  When conducting an experiment, why is the function of randomizing test of a variable and picking the same species?  
  Are ethical and moral questions testable?  
  Do all hypothesis need to be proven false?  


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Cheat Sheet template

Bio 11 :


Outline to make a viable “resource” sheet for Bio 11


  • Take this information and put into a landscape format so you have more room to write down information.
  • Use both written and drawn diagrams to explain information.
  • Use colour coding to identify facts.
  • Always use an example to explain concepts in vocab.


Good luck!



Topic Questions Fill in for answer
DNA How would you label a DNA molecule?


Look for :

What is a nucleotide?

Where are the sugar and phosphates?

What is a nitrogen base?

Which nitrogen bases link up?

When making a protein from DNA, what is the sequence?

What would a copy of DNA look like for mRNA.


If you had a table with tRNA code, how would that transcribe into a sequence of amino acids

If you had a sequence of DNA, how could you make a sequence of mRNA and then using a tRNA table find out the final amino acids in a protein.


What are three functions of DNA?


Include a copy of DNA drawing with labels
Evolution Homologous structures are the result of what processes in evolution?

What is a vestigial structure?

What are the four types of indirect proof and how would similar genes be used to show evolution?


Define: (always have an example)

Convergent evolution

Divergent evolution


Punctuated evolution


Evolution (4)

Genetic drift

Gene flow


Natural selection



Which two scientists published the idea of natural selection?

How why genetic drift, natural selection and gene flow all depend upon mutations.


Explain how reproductive isolation is different than geographic isolation.


Using a graph, can you explain and give an example of how gradual change is different than punctuated equilibrium?


Taxonomy What is the correct order (going from least to most specific classification) in biology?


In a binomial name, the first and second name signify what terms in Taxonomy?


How can you use the classification terminology (KPCOFGS) to see which species may be closer related?



Vocab (include examples)

·      Heterotrophic

·      Autotropic

·      Eukaryote

·      Prokaryote

·      Taxonomy

·      Monera

·      Fungi

·      Plantae

·      Animalia


Chapter One review What are the four theories all about?

·      Cell Theory

·      Gene Theory

·      Biogenesis Theory

·      Evolution


What is a hypothesis?

·      Is it a concept supported by experiments?

·      A result of deductive reasoning?

·      A tentative explanation of the results of an experiment?

·      A tentative explanation of observed phenomena?


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Bio 11 Evolution Review

Bio 11 Evolution Review



Chapter Topic Question
1 Cells ·      Why is a cell considered to be the fundamental unit of life?


    ·      If the theory of abiogenesis was true, then spontaneous generations would come from where?


  Review cheat sheet


Use these questions to make an efficient cheat sheet. Remember..adapt or die!
2 Adaptions ·      What do desirable adaptions allow a species to do?

·      Variations in a population are usually the result of what?

·      What is an inheritable trait?

·      What is a species and how is it formed?


  Fossils ·      What two species could be an example of a grassland animals in two different geographic zones that look similar and that show convergence? Think of pouches and antlers.


  Indirect proof ·      If chicken embryo’s look like rabbit embryo’s then what is the indirect proof to show these two species may be related?

·      What is the concept of biochemical evidence based upon?


    ·      How does sexual reproduction help evolution verses asexual reproduction?

( which makes more diversity/)

·      What is an isolation barrier that cannot be overcome?(see above)


3 Evolution mechanisms ·      What is the basic meaning for the term “evolution’?

·      What is “fixity of species”?

·      What was the original source of variation within the English peppered moth?

·      If an inheritable variation produces a structural or physiological adaption, what must that adaption allow the species to do?


  Lamarck ·      What are Lamarck’s two laws?

·      What words would be used in a question that would show consistency with Lamarck

·      What is the majour weakness in Lamarck’s theory?


  Darwin ·      In Darwin’s theory of evolution, what source of change did Darwin not use nor was he aware of?

·      Why would the word’s “survive and produce” be associated with Darwin’s arguments about the mechanisms for evolution.

·      In Darwin’s theory, what is the force with changes the species trait like the long neck of a giraffe?

·      What is not explained in Darwin’s theory of evolution?

·      In Darwin’s first portion of his argument what concept did he borrow from Malthus?

·      You need to know all six steps of Darwin’s argument and show examples.

·      Can you compare statements that would support or challenge both Darwin and Lamark’s theories of evolution.


  Fill in the blank words ·      Adaptive radiation

·      Isolation mechanisms

·      Failure to adapt results in…?

·      Fossil

·      Homologous

·      Analogous

·      Vestigial

·      Convergence

·      Divergence

·      Artificial selection

·      Natural selection

·      Fixity of species


  Short Answer Topics 1)   What are four categories of indirect or direct evidence. (Describe and discuss)


2)   What are five reasons why fossil records are sometimes difficult to interpret.


3)   Using the concept of speciation, isolation mechanisms and Darwin’s theory, explain why there are 14 species of finches in the Galopagos Islands.

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Bio 11 Quiz Review (Chapter 3)

Chapter Two: Evidence of Evolution Quiz

Topic One: Definitions

  • Adaptive radiation
  • Divergent evolution
  • Convergent evolution
  • Isolation mechanisms
  • Speciation
  • Geographic isolation
  • Ecological isolation
  • Morphological isolation
  • Behavioral isolation
  • Reproductively incompatibility
  • Evolution
  • Extinction

Specific questions about “Adaption”

  1. When is a population considered to be adapted to its environment?
  2. What would make an adaption desirable?
  3. Do all adaptions need to be morphological?
  4. What are four types of adaptions for a duck?


Can be defined as:

  • A process by which populations exhibit gradual changes over several generations.
  • Is a theory that best describes how species living today are descendants of species of the past generations?
  • Provides an explanation of how the biological diversity present today

Directed Evidence

  1. The most impressive direct evidence of evolution comes from the study of what biological structures?
  2. What type of soil are fossils found in?
  3. Where would you most likely find fossils?
  4. How are fossils linked to how the earth’s plates move?
  5. What gas allowed more speciation to occur?
  6. Why would the fossil records of reptiles and mollusk be easier to find that flatworms?
  7. How are some chemical ways to figure out how old a fossil is?
  8. What are four problems with using fossils as direct evidence?
  9. What is convergence and divergence and how would that be linked to the Pangaea theory?

Indirect evidence

  1. How could embryos of an organism be linked to how they have evolved?
  2. What are examples of vestigial structures that could be used both for embryonic and morphological indirect evidence?
  3. Homologous and Analogous structures show what sort of evidence?
  4. Why is biochemical evidence said to show “a degree to which most species are related?
  5. What would be the different between biochemical and physiologic indirect evidence?
  6. If two species had the same type of enzymatic protein, what type of evidence would this be?

Speciation and Isolation mechanisms (remember drawing).

  1. What is the distinction between a “mechanism” and a process like “speciation”?
  2. How would populations change with isolation mechanisms?
  3. How could one species of birds look different than a related species found on the other side of a mountain range?
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Bio 11 Quiz One Review Notes

Quiz one: Review


Topic One:


Scientific method


  • A scientific inquiry always begins with an observation.
  • In an observation you can look for both quantitative and qualitative factors.
  • Now you proposes a hypothesis to explain your observations.
  • You may infer, looking at your observations, a possible cause and effect relationship.


Points about a hypothesis


  • It must be testable
  • It must be a tentative explaination of observed phenomena
  • As a formal hypothesis, it should include the word “if” for the independent variable and “then” for the dependent variable.
  • A hypothesis can be supported by testing that hypothesis


The process of the scientific method includes:

  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Theory
  • Law


All experiments are subject to change and can have experimental error.


In a controlled experiment, there is no experimental variable.


Within the scientific community experiments are given to scientific journals for peer review.


We will need to be aware of four theories

  • Evolutionary theory
  • Gene theory
  • Abiogenesis
  • Cell Theory



The study of how organisms are classified is called taxonomy.

  • A binomial name includes both the genus and the species.
  • A binomial name begins with the genus and then the species, much like your last name then your first.
  • In order from many organisms to specific species is :
  • Kingdom: Example Animal Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Genus
  • Species: note that species are defined by the fact that they reproduce with each other.
  • Levels of organization
  • Cells can be classified as:
  • Prokaryote: an organism that has no nucleus, no organelles, no cytoplasmic streaming .


If we start off with a cell being the lowest level of organization, then levels of complexity and interaction are:

Cell to tissue

Tissue to organ

Organ to system


Now we are looking at specific species.


A number of individual species is a population

A number of population with other populations is a community.

If we consider both living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) factors we are now considering an ecosystem.

Several ecosystems together is referred to as a biome.

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Chordate Review

Chordate Study Guide


  1. What are the 4 characteristics shared by all chordates (4 marks)
  2. The adult seasquirt (Urochordata) has only one of the characteristics of the phylum chordata.
  3. Which characteristic does it have? (Urochordate)
  4. Why is it still considered a member of phylum chordata?(Urochordata)
  5. What is the main function of the kidney in a freshwater fish?
  6. Describe 3 adaptations of reptiles to living on land (3 reasons)
  7. Which class do Snake, lizards, crocodiles, and turtles belong to?
  8. Which class do Wolves, whales and humans belong to?
  9. The circulatory system of an adult frog consists of
  10. Jaws first occurred in which of the following classes?
  11. Characteristics shared by both reptiles and birds are
  12. Mammals that are born in an immature state and then continue their developement in a pouch on the mother are called
  13. Which of the following is a member of the Class Osteichthyes
  14. What are the parts of an amiotic egg and their function?
  15. Which chordate class contains animals that use a rasping tongue to obtain food?
  16. What are the three main characteristics of the Class Mammalia?
  17. Did mammals coexist with dinosaurs?
  18. What was the earliest mammal a predator or herbivore?
  19. Which modern chordate group is thought to be most like the earliest chordates?
  20. The invertebrate phylum most closely related to chordates is?
  21. What are the charactertistic of birds that only they have?
  22. Which chordate has no lungs?
  23. What does the circulatory system of a bony fish consists of?
  24. The mammalian umbilical cord has evolved from which two parts of the reptile egg?
  25. Which of the chordates are an Endotherm (“warm-blooded”)?
  26. The amniote egg first evolved in which of the following groups?
  27. What is the purpose of the allantois in the amniotic egg?
  28. What for nitrogen was does the mammalian kidney excrete?
  29. Which chordate has teeth in their jaws?
  30. Which chordate class has the most diversity?
  31. Which chordate class can live in the most diverse habitats.
  32. Which chordate class can fly, swim, and crawl?
  33. Which chordate has metamorphosis?
  34. Which chordates have hair?
  35. Which chordates have fur?
  36. Which chordates have lungs and claws?
  37. As chordates evolved onto land which systems changed?
  38. As chordates evolved how do reproductive strategies change?
  39. What are example of symbiosis in chordates?
  40. How do skin tissues change with the evolution of chordates?
  41. If a predatory bird population is hunting just mice, what is the ecological association between the two species?
  42. If one species of fish is eating the same food as another species, what ecological relationship is this?
  43. What three strategies do mammals have for gestation of their young?
  44. What is the difference between viviparous and oviparous?
  45. How are the lungs of a bird different ?
  46. Which chordates have urea?
  47. Which chordates have ammonia?
  48. Which chordates have uric acid?
  49. What is the advantage of teeth in sockets?
  50. Which chordate does not have teeth?
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Bio 11 SS Test 8 Review questions

Test 8 Molusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata Review


  1. What is the name of the principal body cavity of molluscs? (Think about movies scenes)
  2. Lit 3 benefits of the arthropod exoskeleton (3 marks)
  3. Your friend claims a spider dropped down from the ceiling and ate a piece of her apple. Give two reasons why this is not possible. (2 reasons)
  4. List and explain three ways that a squid is adapted for a predatory lifestyle (3 reasons)
  5. Describe how a sea star uses its water vascular system in feeding.
  6. Which phylum do Clams, snails, sea slugs, and octopi belong?
  7. Which invertebrate animals does NOT have a true coelom?
  8. What are of the features of molluscs?
  9. What characteristics do all arthropods have?
  10. Sometimes you can find clamshells with small round holes in them on the beach. The hole was made by a sea snail. Which body part did the sea snail use to make the hole?
  11. Can you match structures with  animal phylla ? Can you identify which structures do NOT belong to the same group as the others?
  12. Malpighian tubules are found in which phylum?
  13. Malpighian tubules are part of which organ system?
  14. Can you match common names for Mollusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata?
  15. Spiders belong to which taxonomical class?
  16. Which class do snails belong to?
  17. Spiracles and trachea are found in the grasshopper’s
  18. What is the function of Arthropod blood
  19. An organ or structure of the female grasshopper, used to form short tunnels to lay egg in is called?
  20. Which phylum contains the most intelligent invertebrates?
  21. What are common structures shared by both Echinodermata and Arthropoda?
  22. What body part does a spider use to breathe?
  23. Do starfish have a carapace?
  24. Can you label all the structures on a squid diagram?
  25. What structure do land snails use to obtain oxygen?
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Bio 11 SS Worm Exam Review

Worms Exam Review


  1. The body of a segmented worm is divided into segments, separated by what structure?
  2. Which worm has a proglottid and what does it do?
  3. What is the tough outer covering of a nematode called?
  4. What tissue is a coelom lined with?
  5. What is cephalization?
  6. In which worm phylum/phyla do the members have a developed circulatory system?
  7. In what way is the digestive system of the roundworm considered more advanced than that of the flatworm? (2 reasons)
  8. Why is cephalization associated with motility? (2 reasons)
  9. Which characteristics do flatworms share with hydra?
  1. What is a structure or characteristics are shared by all the worm phyla?
  1. In which of the worm phyla do blood vessels appear?
  1. Which of worms have a complete one-way digestive tract
  1. A fluid-filled, mesoderm-lined body cavity is known as a
  1. How would you list worm phyla from least to most advanced?
  2. Which type of worms (common names) are found in phylum Annelida?
  3. How do Annellia worms breath or respire?
  4. What is an organ designed to grind food in the Annelid digestive system?
  5. If an organism is a hermaphrodite what organs would it have?i
  6. What is the dorsal saddle like structure called in segmented worms called and what is it’s function?
  7. What are some common names for both parasitic and free living Nematods?
  8. What is a concentration of nervous tissue that functions as a simple brain is called
  9. What is the function of the scolex?
  10. Looking at a cladogram , what is an evolutionary development first seen in Nematodes?
  11. Which worm has a closed circulatory system?
  12. What is th most highly developed organ system in a tapeworms ?
  13. Why are adult tapeworms have reduced or absent digestive systems?
  14. To avoid being infected by the trichinella worm what should you do?
  15. Proper sewage treatment could control which types of worms (common names like blood worms, flukes or latin names?
  16. What is the order in which food pass down the digestive system of an earthworm?


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