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Archive for September, 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Sept 28 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                            Date: Sept 28 2016


Last lessons Objective


1.    Nucleic acid to ATP, RNA and DNA  
Today’s Objective a)    Practice quiz identifying biomolecules

b)   How to study productively

c)    Introduction to the cell


Number One

Review of structure and function of biomolecules



Number Two

How to study productively

Studying is a balance between what you do and why you do it.

·      If you change the reason why you study, then you will also change what you do.

·      If you start study sessions with an objective to learn and take a quiz to discover what you do not know, then after a study session you can note how much you have processed by retaking the same evalutation.

·      Text books already have questions within each chapter to focus your attention on the specific information that could answer the questions within the text.

·      Information can be ranked from finding a simple fact by asking “what”.

·      As you change the question from what to how or why, you need find more evidence to answer the question.

·      Making to notes to memorize limits the depth of information you can discover.

·      Linking facts together fact with facts can be used explain both how and why,

·      The objective of each study session should be to evolve from simple whats to hows and whys.

·      Remember..the mind is like a parachute, it only works if it is open.

·      When you study, open your path of inquiry


Number Three

Introduction to the Cell

a)    The cell Theory


b)   Importance of surface area to volume



c)    Life inside and outside of the cell




Text Reference Chapter 3


You tube Reference Really cool stuff!


Cell structure



Cell structure and function



BBC The cell:the hidden kingdom



BBC secret of life




Class Notes References New set of class notes handed out


Take Home message



To be inspired…you need to let go of those things that make you uninspired. Evaluation Next Class
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

Bio 12 Lesson Sept 22 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                        Date: Sept 22 2016


Last lessons Objective



1.     Structure of amino acids

2.     Levels of protein structure

3.     Functions of proteins

Today’s Objective a)    Nucleic acids

b)   Nucleotide

c)    DNA and RNA



Number One

Nitrogen bases

Key points

·      How many nitrogen bases?

·      Where are these bases found?

·      What is the difference between a purine and a pyridine?

·      A: T and G:C, what is the connection regarding number of rings and hydrogen bonds?

·      How is structure of a nitrogen base suited for it’s functions?







Number Two


Key points

Sugar, Phosphate and a Nitrogen base

Nucleotide as a molecule of energy.

Nucleotide as a building block






Number Three

Roles of ATP, DNA and RNA

Structure and function

a)    Energy

b)   Archival Molecule

c)    Protein Synthesis


Building Molecules




Text Reference  


You tube Reference Bozeman on ATP





Class Notes References  

Chapter 2


Take Home message



Energy only works if you have a way to apply it. Evaluation Next Class
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 lesson Sept 23rd

Biology 11 Lesson Outline 5                                            Date Sept 23th 2016



Last lessons Objective



1.    GSD



Today’s Objectives 1.    The world of evaluations

2.    Introduction to chapter two



Number One

So lesson number one…

when doing notes from the book, look at the questions the text is asking.

Lesson two:

Don’t be afraid to make mistakes.


Lesson three:

Learn from your mistakes


Number Two

Make sure to read notes online about chapter two.

Remember “GSD”




Number Three

Notes for chapter two (see at blog)

Observations about how things change with time

Direct and Indirect proof





Text book Reference


Chapter Two




Online and You tube Reference Fossils












Take Home Message Most things of worth do not come to you easily.

“Life is like a treasure hunt” JBuffet

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Chapter Two Notes

Chapter Two Notes


Big Ideas in Biology: Change with Time


What is the significance of a change with time? How do we define evolution? What are some patterns of evolution and how can we prove that a change actually occurred. How are species formed or changed with time? These are the primary questions in chapter two.


Evolution is:

  • an explanation for the increase in biological diversity.


  • a theory that describes how current species are descendants of species of previous generations.


  • is a process by which populations show change (gradual or punctual) over several generations.


  • a basic definition of evolution is a gradual change of species with time.


First of all, a change within a species of organisms can be noted by a change in structure, habitat or even behaviour. This change can be refered to as an adaption.


When is a population of organisms considered to be adapted to it’s environment?

( this is a great question to remember..)


  • Even though the environment may change to a small degree, successive generations of offspring thrive.


  • The most desirable adaptations are those which give an organism a advantage to survive.


A way of showing a longer duration of change with time is to examine remnants of previous generations. These remnants can be actual bones or imprints of organisms. This preserved bits of structural or imprinted information are refered to as fossils.

Ø  Fossil records provide the most direct evidence of evolution

  • Most fossils are found in sandstone and limestone.
  • Problems with fossils:

There are gaps in fossil records

  • due to movement of the earth
  • no know record of organism in that time period
  • one organism eating another at one location and then depositing the remnant at another location


Some specimens are not complete organisms


The process of fossilization requires a specific type of soil


Some specimens are too soft to make a fossil

  • for example a shelled organism would make a better imprint than a worm)


With the advent of genetic research and cell biology, there are now new ways to establish indirect proof of a change with time:


  1. Embryology:
  • Examining the stages of development of an embryo in a variety of species, there appears to be some similarities. This similarity was noted by …who said “     “. Basically, the development of an embryo shows the species phylogenic or family history.


  1. Examining structures

There are three terms relative to structures that are useful for comparing species.


This table may be helpful for comparing homologous to analogous structures.

Structure type and example Structure Function
Homologous similar different
Analogous different similar
Vestigial present no function


  1. Physiology


  1. Biochemistry


Pattern of Evolutions:



If an organisms develops similar structures due to living in similar environments but they are separated due to being geographically isolated, this is an example of convergent evolution. Basically two distinct species show a similarity, although they are not genetically link. The term converge means to come together.



If an organism is separated by geographic barriers, then it will not be able to reproduce with other species. This population will diverge from the original species that it was separated from.


Sources of change


The concept of speciation


The term “speciation” refers to the formation of new species. New species are formed when one population of the same species is separated from another and there is no exhange of genetic information between the two populations.


what can cause speciation?


Isolating mechanisms that may lead to speciation

( remember diagram in class about sea snails)

  • geographic
  • ecological
  • behavioral
  • morphology
  • genetic


While many of these isolation mechanisms may be crossed, for example a snail may adapt from one ecological environment to another. The one barrier that cannot not be crossed in natural situations is the reproductive or genetic barrier.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Quiz One

Acme Review Guide


Quiz One




Scientific Method


  • How did theories such as “abiogenesis” change or get challenged?
  • What is the purpose of having a specific scientific method?
  • How does a theory begin?
  • Is a hypothesis just a guess or a testable idea?
  • Is a theory a fact?
  • What is an observation that you measure?
  • What is an observation that you could give a subjective description like green?

Basic Microscope

  • How do you calculate drawing size?
  • How do you calculate actual size?
  • What three things occur when when you increase magnification?
  • What is field of view?


You are designing a lab

  • What is a formal hypothesis?
  • What is a dependent and independent variable?
  • What is the amount of sample that you should have?
  • What is a control and why do we need to consider it?
  • What is the difference between data and results?


Types of Biological studies linked to big ideas.


Big Ideas


Structure and function                Study of        morphology, biochemistry


Changes with time                                               evolution


Continuity                                                                genetics


Interactions                                                                        ecology


Homeostasis                                                                       physiology


Unity and Diversity                                                            taxonomy, genetics



What defines what is alive or not?


What are the six types of activities of life?

Can you provide an example?

Which activity could include all the other activities



Levels of organization


Lets start with really small things ( microscopic)

Starting from simple to complex

Cell                (a simple cell either prokaryotic or eukaryotic)

Tissue             (a group of cells working together)

Organ            (a collection of tissues to achieve a process such as digestion)

System          (a group of organs working together to keep homeostasis within an organism)



Now bigger things that we can observe (macroscopic)

Population   (a group of all the same species)

Community  (a group with two or more species)

Ecosystem   (a combination of organisms with non living factors like an aquarium)

Biome: A combination of ecosystems within a larger portion of the earth based both on climate and geography.



Chemicals of life


There are many elements yet what is the significance of



We all need water and we all respire carbon dioxide, yet they are both inorganic, why?



So here is a question..


How do you suppose our own ideas or beliefs could affect making a formal hypothesis?


For example..


If a tiger charges into a classroom then what could occur?


What beliefs could affect how the hypothesis ends?





posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 lesson 3 Sept 13th 2016

Biology 11 Lesson Outline 3                                            Date Sept 13th 2016



Last lessons Objective



1.    History and scientific methods


Today’s Objectives 1.    Activities of life

2.    Six Big ideas of Biology

3.    Levels of organization

Observe Duck weed



Number One

Treasure hunt in Mac Millan Text (page 33)

How do we know something is alive?

Worksheet from Mac Millan Text.

Which or how are activities linked?


See Class notes


Characteristics of living things



Seven characteristics of life



Eschool notes





Number Two

What are the six big ideas in biology

What is a concept and how is it linked to how we explore living things?

What is “critical thinking”?


How do you use a concept to organize your observations?

See your worksheet







Another point of view



Examples of linking observations with concepts






Number Three

What is a level of organization?

If you are looking at an organism with a microscope your are at a cellular level.


If you are dissecting a large mammal, you are now looking at structures made of cells, that combine to tissues which make organs and interact with systems. The higher the level of organization the more interactions can occur.


Imagine..you are in a house, that house is in a neighborhood, that neighborhood is in a city, and the city in in a province. You scale of perception is increasing with the change in level of organizations


Photo of Duck weed, see change in two days


Problem with “Duck Weed”

·      How to measure growth

·      Using microscope to measure size and draw features of duckweed








Text book Reference


Chapter One




Online and You tube Reference  

Measuring duck weed



History of Biology Video Game



History of Bio








Take Home Message An activity of life can be observed

An idea or concept can be used to explain what has been observed.

A level of organization is a relative point of view

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 Chapter One and Two Notes

Chapter One/Two Notes:

  • Big Ideas in Biology
  1. Unity and Diversity
  2. Changes with time
  3. Structure and Function



In chapter one, we attempt to observe and define some of the attributes of life. We note that all activities of life arise from living things. Through experimentation and the invention of the microscope, we can now theorize that all living things are composed of cells. Therefore; as basic units in biology we can state that cells are the basic unit of life and that there can be as many as six different activities of life observed by all living things. We also noted that in the subcellular level, cells are composed of molecules and that these molecules help regulate and continue the activities of life. We could say that we have outlined some of the parameters of what links all living things together. Therefor exploring part of one of the big ideas in biology, which is Unity and Diversity. Put simply there are several factors, including cellular and molecular structures and activities, which link all living things based upon cellular and molecular activities.


In this next chapter we are going to explore, the other half of this idea, that idea of diversity.


Developing an idea:

Idea Number One: Activities of Life and Adaptation

From the previous chapter, we noted that one of the activities of life is the ability to adapt.

Adaptations put simply is the ability to respond to changes in or around an organism. These changes allow the organism to improve chances of survival. This ability can be inherited and increase an organisms chance of survival.


Idea Number Two: Levels of organization


Level of Organization


Atomic There are basic elements found in each living thing,

these include Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur

Molecular Each living thing needs nutrients in the form of

molecules. The nutrients can be classified as:

Fats and lipids-energy and structure

Carbohydrates- primary source of energy

Nucleic Acids- genetic material to regulate cell activities

Protein: structural and regulatory activities

Vitamin and Minerals: help in chemical reactions

Cellular The cell is the basic unit of life

Cell types can be classified either as:

Prokaryotic: primitive cells, without nucleus and organelles (example: bacteria )

Eukaryotic: more advanced cells, with nucleus and organelles

Multicellular Cells can combine to form organism which have more than one cell. This increases diversity of cell functions and can lead to organism with specific tissues ( cells all doing the same function) and organs ( group of tissues doing similar functions)
Species Any organism which look alike and can interbreed with another similar organism, in natural conditions, and produce fertile offspring is said to be a species
Population a group of organism all of the same species, occupying a   given area at the same time
Community a group of populations
Ecosystem Several populations interacting with each other plus abiotic factors
Biome A geographic region based upon a similarity in ecosytems and climate. Example Deserts, Tundra, Boreal forest.


The next question is:

“ If organism can be so similar, then how do or how did they become so different?” To explain this change we have yet another theory classified under the concept of evolution. Evolution can be thought of as the change of organism over a period of time. This is yet another big idea in biology “ Changes with time”.


Some questions to ponder:

  1. If organisms change with time, how can that change be shown?
  • Is the change shown similarity or diversity?
  • Does the change shown directly or indirectly?
  1. If organism change with time, what is the mechanism that creates that change?


Types of proof in regards to evolution

Like the cell theory, we need proof or evidence to create a theory:


For the theory of evolution we have two types of proof

  1. Direct Evidence
  • fossils offer direct evidence of pathway, or evolutionary history. This pathway can be considered to be a history to show origins of species and how they changed. This history can be used to explain organisms phylogenic or evolutionary history.
  • fossils are created due to preserved hard parts of organisms. Fossils can either be original body parts or imprints preserved or “ petrified” with mineral matter.
  • fossils can be used to show geological time scales
  • fossils can be used to show two types of evolution, called divergent and convergent evolution.


  • Divergent Evolution:

process where original organisms evolve into variety of distinct species. Each new population then becomes a new distinct species. Fossil histories can have gaps and so biologist have to hypothesis as to original species, which lead to a variety of species. Put simply a primitive ancestor has the potential to adapt to a variety of environments through structural changes, behavioral change or changes in reproduction. Divergent evolution often notes changes in structures of fossils to create “ family trees” for organisms.

  • Convergent Evolution:

process of development of similar forms from unrelated species due to adaptation to similar environment. Best example: Marsupials in Australia. Another definition: similar forms in geographically different areas responding to similar environments.


Comparing Divergence to Convergence:

convergent evolution occurs when two dissimilar species change in response to similar environmental conditions and show development of similar characteristics.

Example: Kangaroo and the deer

similarities: in location of eyes, type of teeth, long ears and herd behavior

dissimilarity: marsupial verses placental ancestors

Divergent evolution occurs when members within a singes species change in response to a new and different environmental condition, and each population develops into dissimilar characteristics.

Example: Primate ancestral groups evolving into specific of apes


  1. Indirect Evidence

Often instead of looking at fossils, biologist can look at current species and use other methods to hypothesis their family background. If we assume that adaptation is an inherited trait, then we can look at patterns of inheritance through embryological , structural, physiological or biochemical evidence.

( remember: How many and what are the types of indirect proof ?)


  • Embryology:

Each organism starts off as a simple cell. If it divides into a multicellular organism the cells divide and create unique structures. An embryo is the prebirth stage of living organism. Embryology is the study of organisms in their earliest stages of development. In the 1800’s it was noted that several organisms show similarities in their embryonic development. This observation brought forth the statement and a theory of recapitulation:

“ Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny”

In simple terms, each organism shows their evolutionary history ( phylogeny) in its own embryonic development ( ontogeny).


  • Homologous and Analogous Structures:

                     Homologous Structures:

                     Often organisms will have similar structures but these structures serve different functions. This is an example of an indirect proof of divergent evolution. Key thing to remember. Similar structure but different function.

Analogous Structures:

                     Often organisms will show structures that provide the same function but have differences in structure. Key point, similarity in function but not in structure. This can also be used as indirect proof of divergent evolution.

Vestigial Structures:

                   Sometimes creatures have structures that serve no apparent function, like hips on snakes or a human appendix. A structure with no apparent function is said to be vestigial.

  • Physiological Evidence:


                   How organs within an organism work is the study of physiology. For example observing and learning how organisms excrete waste, would be examining a physiological phenomenon. Tissues and chemical reactions within organs can be regulated by specific

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Biology 12 Lesson Sept 12, 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                             Date: Sept 12th 2016


Vancouver School Board




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Last lessons Objective

Class Notes or Information


1.   Getting squared away

2.   Intro the chemistry meets biology




Today’s Objective

1.   Chemical Bonds (4 types)

2.   Properties of water

3.   Inorganic to organic molecules




Number One

From our previous class we recall that when two two different elements combine together, they form a molecule


It requires energy to make a chemical bond.







Number Two

Water’s properties can be linked both to

a)   Being a polar molecule

b)   Sharing hydrogen bonds

Inorganic and organic Chemistry

Introduction to water

How many properties of water are there?


Properties of water







Number Three

A)   Using water to make a solution

·      Water and Acids and Bases and Inorganic Chemistry

B)   Using water to make or break a biomolecule Hydrolysis and Synthesis


Riddles to why people get confused.



Hydrolysis verses Atp hydrolysis







Text Reference

Chapter Two

Molecules of life



You tube Reference




chemistry for biologists



Other reasons to study biology in high school




Class Notes References

In class work sheet


Biology 12 concept map




Take Home message



It take energy to make and break things. Water has two types of bonds which create situations where a molecule can be broken (lysis) or separated (make into a solvent). Energy and matter..an amazing thing.

Evaluation Next Class

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 Lesson One Sept 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                             Date: Sept 8th 2016


Last lessons Objective Class Notes or Information


1.   Summer time life styles verses grade 12




Today’s Objective 1.   Getting “squared away

2.   intro to class

3.   Chapter Two Chemistry



Number One

Welcome to Biology 12


·      What is squared away?

·      Redefining “gunner”

·      Our mission is “G.S.D.”

·      What is a “concept”




Number Two

Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry

·      How “concepts” are linked together?

·      Worksheet of Sc 10 Chemistry

·      Matter makes energy.

·      Matter is held together by electron glue

·      You are a combination of molecules and cells that have not clue what “you” is.

·      What is a chemical bond? (4)



Number Three

Inorganic and organic Chemistry

Introduction to water

How many properties of water are there?


Properties of water





Text Reference Chapter Two

Molecules of life


You tube Reference Unseeable Biology



Class Notes References Worksheet for Science 10

Class Notes



Take Home message



“circumstance does not make the (hu)man, it reveals them”


Tough times don’t last, tough people do



Evaluation Next Class
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 Lesson One Sept 7

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                                           Date April 7th



Last lessons Objective



Life outside of room 411


Soak up sun and relax


Introduction video



Today’s Objectives 1.    Biology 11 “saying and doing”

2.    The art of observations

3.    Designing a testable idea


Number One


Getting squared away

In another world



From the Gunny




Chalk talk


Mental toughness









Number Two

The art of observation

What is an observation?

Examining sample jars and trying to organize observations.

Types of observations



What is biology?




Number Three

Scientific Method and Experimental Design

Khan Academy step of scientific method




·      Control

·      Independent variable

·      Dependent variable

·      Hypothesis

·      Observe to question, use “if ..then”


Be able to propose means to test an idea.


How to outline a lab




Univ. of Toronto outline




Text book Reference


Chapter One  
Online and You tube Reference  

Khan Academy : Welcome to Biology





Scientific Method













Take Home Message G.S.D.

Semper gumby!

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments