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# Archive for October, 2016

## Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 15 Oct 27

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 15                                         Date Oct 27th 2016

 Last lessons 1)    Collaborative Treasure Hunt 2)    Wikipedia “aha” reading response 3)    Next class quiz Eval Today’s Objectives 1)    Quiz on Chapter 3 2)    Defining Population Evolution 3)    Hardy Weinberg formula Topic Number One After the quiz Defining Population Evolution https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/the-evolution-of-populations-19/population-evolution-130/defining-population-evolution-527-11733/   How many definitions about evolution talk about genes? What exactly is a “gene”   Looking at the above link, record key terms and try to create an example of each.   How do you suppose these “terms” link to key points?   How do these terms link to previous case studies in the class?   Work: a)   Definitions from board, text and link b)   Text Question pg 182   Mendel and Darwin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhFKPaRnTdQ Topic Number Two Reading assignment> The Hardy Weinberg Formula https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPkOAnK20kw   What must occur for evolution not to occur? Linking ideas like allele Plan A: Going from Population Phenotypes to Genotype Plan B: Going from Genotype to Phenotype Key tricks to solving questions   1)    In a population and looking at phenotype, always use the number of organisms that do not show the trait. Example, if 80 of 110 plants show dominate trait, calculate the allele frequency. So 110 minus 80 are purebred recessive or “aa”.   2)    When you are given the dominant allele frequency, calculate the recessive allele frequency first. Example the dominant allele frequency is .65. If the whole population is 1 and you subtract .65 from 1, the recessive allele frequency is .35 for the population. Topic Number Three Practice work on HW (Next class) Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oG7ob-MtO8c   Practice http://study.com/academy/practice/quiz-worksheet-hardy-weinberg-equilibrium-equation.html Text book Ref Chapter Three Chapter 6 Online Take Home Message Don’t adopt a cat if you want a dog.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 12 (16-17) L 14 Oct Wed 25

Bio 12 (16-17) L14                              Date: Oct Wed 25

 Last lessons Class Notes or Information 1.   Cell membrane structures Today’s Objective 1)   Collect data for osmosis graphs of sweet potatoe in salt and sugar solutions 2)   Understanding the difference between selectively permeable and semipermeable 3)   Comparing Active to Passive transport across cell membranes Topic Number One Potato lab objective. Collect data and make graph   Reference link http://www.slideshare.net/XAB00DX/osmosis-lab-report   Would like to recruit two lab groups to do a full day run of data collection for Friday. Contact asap.   We may want to alter both the concentration of sugar and salt and change the shape of the potato Topic Number Two In preparation for dialysis lab   Semi permeable verse Selectively Permeable Movement across membranes with proteins   Modeling membranes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NC8pIzNzqrc   Comparison Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU4otyMhjHU   Analogy youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNtHYnL6rT0 Topic Number Three Passive, Facilitated verses Active transport   Step one: Passive compared to Active   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfy92hdaAH0   nice graphic analogy of kayaking as a way to compare active to passiv transport https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1636lRv2uGE     A good English video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UgN76naeA1Q   A..um..written powerpoint. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLLWt6Ru-bY   A..hands on verbal description https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpECyJbtQ38 Text Reference Chapter Three Cell organelle practice quizzes Google hunt Cell metabolism and organelles Class Notes References Chapter Four in text Take Home message We need to discover which makes a better French fry. Soak the whole potato with skin in salt water Soak cut slices of potatoes in salt water Soak cut slices of potatoes in fresh water
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 14 Oct 25

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 14                                         Date Oct 25th 2016

 Last lessons 1)    story of Evolution Timeline 2)    Darwin verse Lamarck 3)    Problems with Linneaus, Taxonomy and DNA Eval Today’s Objectives 1)    Collaborative Treasure Hunt 2)    Wikipedia “aha” reading response 3)    Next class quiz 4) Topic Number One In class group evaluation The following evaluation was found in an archeological dig as Vancouver Dump. Your mission is to create an answer key for questions. You will be given open book resources, no online information and one feedback response Topic Number Two You are to go to the following web address and read the article.   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin   Find 5 “Aha” observations.   For example, “did you know Darwin married his second cousin and was worried that imbreeding may have caused the death of his children. He never read mendel though..   So read the article Select: a)   Two aha’s about Darwins personal life and explain why you found these fact interesting b)   Two aha s that explained more details found in text and notes and explain how these facts helped explain material deeper c)   One aha within the wiki that made you want to go to a second link within the bio. Explain why Topic Number Three Next class Check evaluation answers Quiz on Chapter 3 Introduction to Chapter 6 and work on structure and function of DNA Text book Ref Chapter Three Chapter 6 Online Misconceptions about evolution http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/misconceptions_teacherfaq.php Take Home Message Darwin was fond of potatoes…why?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 13 Oct 20th

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 13                                         Date Oct 20th 2016

 Last lessons 1)    story of Evolution Timeline 2)    Darwin verse Lamarck 3)    Problems with Linneaus, Taxonomy and DNA Eval Today’s Objectives 1)    Darwin’s Finches 2)    The rate of change: punctuated or gradual 3)    Introduction to Taxonomy Topic Number One So here is the six mark question: How did the diversity of finches on the Galopagos Islands occur according to Darwin’s mechanism for change.   Key points. 1)    A population of finches arrived to the Islands from mainland south America, perhaps Ecuador. 2)    On the initial island there was: ·      Plenty of food ·      Niches to set up territories ·      No natural predators 3)    As the species started to grow, there began a competition of food and space. 4)    Some species born did not have the correct beak to get food and they migrated to another island. 5)    On the new island, those species that survived were those species that had the right beak adaption to get food. ( See definition for adaptive radiation) 6)    Each Island has its own unique climate and habitat, the species that had the best beak to get food on that island became the dominant species on that island.   Wallace discovered the same pattern with islands https://www.wired.com/2012/08/island-evolution-more-species/   Wallace web page http://wallacefund.info Wallace paper to Linneaus society http://wallacefund.info/content/1858-darwin-wallace-paper Topic Number Two Rates of Change: Gradual verses Punctuated Equilibrium http://evolution.about.com/od/macroevolution/a/Gradualism-Vs-Punctuated-Equilibrium.htm   What is adaptive radiation and how can it help explain different rates of change? Darwin’s Dilemma http://evolution.about.com/od/Darwin/fl/Darwins-Dilemma.htm   Video to compare Topic Number Three Why the confusion with Taxonomy and Evolution a)   Taxonomy came first and did not consider DNA b)   Evolutionary theories did not know about DNA c)   Gradual and Punctuated Equilibrium   What is taxonomy and Linneaus’s plan   What is the difference between a system using kingdoms verses Domains? Text book Ref Chapter 3 Darwin’s theory of evolution, rate of change and adaptive radiation Chapter 6: Traits and allele frequency Chapter 7: Taxonomy Online Misconceptions about evolution http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/misconceptions_teacherfaq.php   Practice Evolution quizzes Take Home Message To simplify a problem, make it into small pieces. Paraphrase of Einstein.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 12 Oct 18th 2016

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 12                                         Date Oct 18th 2016

 Last lessons 1)    Darwin’s Dangerous Idea 2)    Performance, feedback and revision 3)    From Aristotle to Now Eval Today’s Objectives 1)    History of Evolution Timeline 2)    Darwin verse Lamarck 3)    Problems with Linneaus, Taxonomy and DNA Topic Number One History of theory of Evolution begins with two issues a)   theory of “fixity of species” needed to be refuted. b)   animals classified not by evolution nor DNA   ·      Classification of living things: Linnaeus ·      role of fossils: Cuvier ·      Buffon challenges fixity of species ·      Hutton introduces change with time regarding geology ·      Malthus: struggle for existence ·      Lamarck: Acquired characteristics and use and disuse ·      Darwin ·      Mendel ·      Role of DNA and Heredity ·      Role of DNA and evolution   History of Evolutionary Thought https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_evolutionary_thought Topic Number Two Darwin verses Lamarck Evidence and theory for a mechanism of change http://necsi.edu/projects/evolution/lamarck/intro./lamarck_intro.html       Key concepts ·      Traits acquired verses being selected ·      Organism adapts verse environment is favouring those who adapt. ·      Use and disuse verse struggle for existence ·      Key issue ·      Neither new about the source but did propose a mechanism for change. Practice quiz Topic Number Three Why the confusion with Taxonomy and Evolution a)   Taxonomy came first and did not consider DNA b)   Evolutionary theories did not know about DNA c)   Gradual and Punctuated Equilibrium   Three paths of Inquiry a)   How are living things classified (chapter 7) b)   What is the mechanism for change (chapter 3) c)   What is the role of DNA in Evolution (Chapter 6) Text book Ref Chapter Three Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Online Molecular Phylogenetics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_phylogenetics Hardy and Weinberg (chapter 6) http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab8/quiz.html Take Home Message Keep it simple sailor
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 12 (16-17)L11 Oct 13th

Bio 12 (16-17) L11                              Date: Oct Tues 13

 Last lessons Objective   Chapter 3 Class Notes or Information   1.   What is a cell made of? 2.   How are structures of a cell linked metabolism? 3.   How does a cell work Evaluations Today’s Objective 1.   How does a cell work project 2.   Let make atp http://ibiologyblog.blogspot.ca   3.   Lets make protein flow chart https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/structure-of-a-cell/tour-of-organelles/a/the-endomembrane-system   4.   Lets make fats and detox https://middletownhighschool.wikispaces.com/2009-Smooth-Rough+Endoplasmic+Reticulum+and+Ribosome Topic Number One When thinking about the mitochondria remember that you are burning sugar as fuel to make a new form of energy within the cell Topic Number Two When thinking about making protein structures consider where the code is coming from and what will be the end product. Will the protein stay inside of the cell or leave it? How are protein packaged within the cell? http://archive.cnx.org/contents/053f517d-5afe-4a47-9952-48cebf3e7f89@2/human-biology-chapter-3-3-a-more-detailed-look-at-eukaryotic-cells Topic Number Three When making a fat or to detoxify an alcohol where do you go? http://slideplayer.com/slide/7021087/ Text Reference Chapter Three Google hunt Cell metabolism and organelles     Quizlet https://quizlet.com/7893138/functions-of-the-organelles-flash-cards/ Class Notes References Take Home message Quiz next class on labelling a diagram and show a making of a biomolecule
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 11 DNA Notes

Structure and Function of DNA

 What does DNA stand for?   What is the function of DNA?       Where is DNA found?     What is the structure of DNA?                                         What is a nucleotide? Shat are the 4 bases found in DNA?   What is complementary base pairing? •     DeoxyriboNucleicAcid     •     provides instructions for o   the synthesis of enzymes that control cell functioning o   its own replication (the only molecule known that can replicate itself)     •     found in all cells of all organisms •     in eukaryotes it is found only in the nucleus   •       two long strands twisted around each other in a shape called a “double helix” •     when unravelled it looks like a ladder •     sides of the ladder are alternating sugar and phosphate – the “sugar phosphate backbone” •     rungs of the ladder arecomplementary pairs of “nitrogenous bases” joined by hydrogen bonds •     largest humn chromosome has about 250,000,000 base pairs   •     DNA molecule made up of many units (like lego blocks) called nucleotides •     each nucleotide consists of a phosphate molecule + sugar + nitrogenous base   •     4 types of bases in DNA o   adenine (A) o   cytosine (C) o   guanine (G) o   thymine (T)       •     adenine and thymine complement each other and always pair •     cytosine and guanine complement each other and always pair

Genes

 What are genes?           What are enzymes? •       Genes are units of instruction, located on chromosomes, that determine specific traits in an individual. •       Each gene consist of a length of DNA that contains instructions (the “code”) for making a specific enzyme.     •       protein molecules that control the chemical reactions in a cell •       Enzymes are proteins made of long chains of amino acids. •       there are 20 kinds of amino acids.     An Analogy: Think of the nitrogenous bases along a single strand of DNA as being letters:   ATGCTCGAATAAATGTGAATTTGA The letters make words:   ATG   CTC   GAA     TAA   ATG   TGA     ATT   TGA   The words make sentences: These “sentences” are called genes. Each three letter “word” in the sentence is called a codon, and represents a different amino acid. Enzymes are proteins made of long strings of amino acids. Each “sentence” (gene) is the code for an enzyme made up of amino acids.

RNA and Enzyme Assembly

 What does RNA stand for?   What is the function of RNA?     Where is RNA found?   What is the structure of RNA?       what are the 3 kinds of RNA?       How is RNA formed?                     How are enzymes assembled? •     RiboNucleicAcid     •     functions as a messenger, carrying instructions from the DNA to the rest of the cell     •     in the nucleus and in the cytoplasmm     •     similar to DNA except: •     only one strand •     the base thymine is replced with a base called uracil (U)     1.     messengern RNA (mRNA) 2.    transfer RNA (tRNA) 3.    ribosomal RNA (rRNA)     RNA formed through a process called transcription   1) The hydrogen bonds between complementary bases break. 2) Thedouble helix unravels (becomes untwisted), exposing unpaired bases. 3) New nucleotides, with complementary bases, come and form a new chain along only one strand of the DNA. 4) Chemical bonds form between the sugars and the phosphates of the new nucleotides   •     Every time the cell needs a particular enzyme assembled, a new mRNA molecule is created from the gene on the DNA that “codes for” that enzyme •     the mRNA goes out into the cytoplasm and finds a ribosome, which is an organelle that assembles proteins •     the ribosome “reads” the mRNA code and uses it to assemble a chain of amino acids that becomes the required enzyme

DNA Replication

 Why does DNA replicate (reproduce) itself?     What is the process of DNA replication? DNA replictes so that every time a cell divides, each new daughter cell can have an identical copy of DNA (instructions)     1)    The hydrogen bonds between complementary bases break 2)    The double helix unravels (becomes untwisted), exposing unpaired bases 3)    New nucleotides, with complementary bases, come and form hydrogen bonds with the unpaired bases, forming a new chain. 4)     Chemical bonds form between the sugars and phosphates of the new nucleotides. 5)    The result is 2 new strands of DNA, each of which has one strand from the original DNA and one strand that is newly created.                                         Every once in a while, a mistake happens while DNA is duplicating itself, and the new strand will be slightly different than the original strand. These mistakes are called mutations
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Bio 11 Chapter 6 Gap Notes

Biology 11

Mr. MBK Carmichael

Name: ____________________ Date: __________ Block: _____

Chapter 6 – Genetic Basis of Evolution

Read pages 174-176, 181-182, and 187-190

Use the text, sidebars, and illustrations to answer the questions below:

 What is the main source of genetic variation among individuals in a population?   What is a gene pool?     EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE   What are the 3 factors that bring about evolutionary change?   What is mutation?       Describe the two types of mutations?         What is genetic drift?           What are alleles? (use the definition from the glossary, then give an example)     Explain what you think it means for “allele frequencies in a population to change.” Give an example       What is migration (gene flow)?     SPECIATION   What is speciation?   What is a species?     What are the two ways in which a new species may arise? Describe each one. 1

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

## Bio 11 PLO’s

BIOLOGY 11 UNIT C – EVOLUTION

1. PRESCRIBED LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of this unit, you must be able to:

1) describe the process of evolution

1. describe the basic structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with reference to the following terms:
• double helix
• sugar-phosphate backbone
• nitrogenous bases (A, T, C, G)
• complementary base pairing (A-T, C-G)
2. explain the role of DNA in evolution
3. describe the five agents of evolutionary change:
• mutation
• genetic drift
• gene flow
• non-random mating
• natural selection
1. differentiate among and give examples of convergent evolution, divergent evolution, and speciation
2. compare the gradual change model with the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution

1. VOCABULARY

By the end of this unit, you must be able to define the following:

 o     complementary base pairing o     convergent evolution o     divergent evolution o     deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) o     double helix o     evolutionary change o     gene flow o     genetic drift o     gradual change model o     mutation o     natural selection o     nitrogenous base o     non-random mating o     punctuated equilibrium model o     speciation o     sugar- phosphate backbone
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

# Chapter Three Review Questions   : page (Ch. 3)

1. The modern view of evolution is based on scientific evidence which combines both genetic information and the theory of natural selection. It implies a change over time. Earlier beliefs were based on opinion and nonscientific evidence. This earlier view held that living things had been “fixed” since the beginning, and were unchangeable.

1. The variety (adaptation) of beak types displayed by the islands’ finch species made the greatest impression on Darwin.

1. Survival of the fittest means that individuals with traits best suited for and environment are better able to compete, survive, and reproduce. Adaptation is the basis through which natural selection can occur, with those individuals that are best adapted to particular environments becoming the most successful reproducers. The direction of evolution is determined by the adaptation.

1. Lamarck offered and explanation for the mechanism of evolution – that species change over time, and that the environment is a factor n that change. He showed that evolution is adaptive and that the diversity of life is the result of adaptation (see pages 91- 93).

1. Buffon’s theory indicated that the creation of a species did not occur in a single place at a single time and that a species was not created in a perfect state. Later he wondered if certain species might develop from a common ancestor. Darwin accepted Buffon’s ideas and went on to provide an explanation for the manner in which species change over time.

1. Structural, physiological, and biochemical are the three types of adaptation.

1. The moths adapted a color (pigmentation) change from light-colored to predominantly dark-colored (melanic) forms in response to the environmental changes caused by the industrial fumes of the mid-1800s

## Applying the Concepts

1. The study of genetics has shown that acquired characteristics cannot be passed on to offspring, so Lamarck’s ideas have been proven incorrect.
2. a) Lamarck would have suggested that the zebra wanted to avoid the annoying bite of the tsetse fly and developed the striped to do this.
3. b) Darwin or Wallace would have suggested that some zebras were striped more than others. Tsetse flies bit those that had few stripes, or had pale stripes. These zebras got the parasite and died, and the striped zebras, which were bitten less frequently, reproduced and passed the stripes to their offspring.
4. c) Answers will vary.
5. Human activities can affect evolution by isolating populations of organisms in different areas. Small organisms are less likely to cross roads to find a mate, so the road can become an effective barrier. Bridges can bring two isolated populations together, stopping their speciation.
6. Lamarck had recognized the impact of environmental factors on the course of evolution. He recognized that the mechanism for evolution was natural selection through adaptation. This became the basis for Darwin’s theory of evolution.
7. The traditional and widely accepted model for the rate of evolutionary change holds that change occurs slowly or gradually within populations of organisms. The peppered moth case (and others mentioned in the test) demonstrated that certain changes (e.g., coloration in moths) can take place rapidly.
• Some populations (e.g., mosquitoes exposed to insecticides) show wide fluctuations in number, indicating the loss (or gain) of tremendous numbers of individuals, but the species continues (although it may evolve in the process).
• The loss of individuals may reduce the gene pool and modify the population, but he species continues.
• The life span of individuals is trivial in comparison to the “life span” of species. Hence, specific individuals contribute very little to the survival of the species. On the other hand, if the species does not survive, there will of course be no more individuals.
1. Adaptation to environment is a very complex process and very difficult to study in the natural environment. It is impossible, for example, to devise and experiment to show the effect on a caribou population of another ice age. Adaptation also takes a very long time, and may not be suitable for direct study (e.g., even an adaptation taking hundreds of years would be difficult to study directly). Carefully constructed computer models mimic the response of organisms in the “real world,” and allow scientists to run simulations that show, in minutes, the effects of environmental changes that might take years of real time. They can also vary different aspects of the environment and look at their effects on populations. Supercomputers allow such models to contain far more complexity and to be more realistic. Examples will be various.
2. Answers will vary, and might include some of the following:
• Roads can be a barrier to some species, and their construction can subdivide populations. Each smaller population may experience slightly different selection pressures, and it may contain a slightly different gene pool than the original, continuous, population.
• Hydroelectric dams cause extensive flooding and disruption of natural populations, creating new sets of selection pressures which can affect the direction and rate of evolution. Some major projects have even been stopped because they would cause the extinction of a specific organism found only in the area that would be disrupted by the dam.
• The building of navigable waterways connecting previously unconnected (or poorly connected) bodies of water allows the spread of species beyond previous limits, and alters community composition and selection pressures (e.g., the lamprey entering the Great Lakes).
• Pumping of wasted water from ships’ bilges has been implicated in the introduction the zebra mussel to the Great Lakes, introducing a new and fast-growing grazer to the community, with implications both for existing species and for our use of the waterways.
1. High reproductive capacity is normally linked with high egg number and short development time (e.g., many species of fish and insects). Where there are many young, there will be many different combinations of parental genes, increasing the chance that there will be some combinations that are better able to withstand a particular selection pressure. Such populations can also respond more rapidly to sudden pressures. (Compare the response of humans, which have a nine-month gestation period and approximately 20 years between generations, with the response of flies, which may have only days between successive generations

## Critical-Thinking Questions

1. Answers will vary. When humans are domesticating animals and plants, they choose traits that they (the humans) want to propagate. They do not allow “nature to take its course.” For example, animals many thousands of miles apart can parent an offspring by artificial insemination; this would not occur naturally.
2. answers should recognize that, in the Galapagos, similar populations of organisms invaded a series of islands on which there were different selection pressures. It is almost the type of situation a researcher might set up if she were interested in evolution in natural situations, and if she had hundreds (perhaps thousands) of years to observe the results. Answers should include the idea of isolation one island population from populations on other islands and /or the mainland.
3. If a Lamarckian explanation of evolution were to be endorsed, then evolutionary changes in an organism would be interpreted as meeting the needs of the individual organism.
4. Answers will vary, but may be evaluated in relation to the literature used to research them.
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