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Bio 11 SS Bacteria Vocab

Bacteria Vocab List


1. Aerobic  
2. Anaerobic  
3. Anaerobic respiration  
4. antibiotic  
5. Antitoxin  
6. Autotrophic  
7. Bacillus  
8. Binary Fission  
9. Blue green algae  
10. Cell wall  
11. Chemosynthetic  
12. Chemotaxia  
13. Chemotherapy  
14. Cocci  
15. Conjugation  
16. Endospore  
17. Fermentation  
18. Flagella  
19. Heterotrophic  
20. Pathogen  
21. Penicillin  
22. Photo taxis  
23. Photosynthetic  
24. Pplo  
25. Respiration  
26. Rickettsia  
27. Spirochetes  
28. Staphylococci  
29. Streptococci  
30. Streptomycin  
31. Toxin  
32. Vaccine  
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio,Microbio and have No Comments

History of world and pathology assignment

Biology 11 : History of Pathology Time line

There is something known as the “butterfly affect”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect

The premise is that one small change can have a large affect. In Biology, a simple observation can sometimes lead to a discovery that save millions of lives. How could how one event affects another? How is it that rapid changes in on pursuit of knowledge can be linked to world history.

Using the following table you are to compare World History to the history of medicine and pathology.

  • In History of Pathology and Medicine you should included :
  • You should seek out the history, pathology and epidemics linked to HIV virus and Spanish Flu, E. Coli and Staphylcoccus, and Malaria and Trypanosoma.
  • You should also include new discoveries for curing disease, and the names of those who brought forth the discovery. ( examples: Morgani, Jenner, Pasteur, Walter Reed, Dr. Don Francis, Dr. Robert Gallo, Francoise Barre-Snoussi)

In world events, you should keep track of:

  • majour wars on the planet, changes in transportation and trades, periods of renaissance, revolutions (social and industrial), changes in human transportation and changes in world economy ( examples: world disasters such as Potato famine, Panama Canal, World Wars 1 and 2, and the Industrial revolution.

You are to use: Online resources (please cite your bibliography), including “Wikipedia” and

World History Date History of Pathology and Medicine


Comparative Questions

  1. How is the changes of movement of people linked to how diseases moved?
  2. Was the Spanish flu really from Spain?
  3. What 10 year period of time showed the greatest change both in world history and pathology?
  4. Hypothesize why this may have occurred.
  5. What three world events had the greatest affect upon pathology and medicine?
  6. What five events in the history of pathology may have had the greatest affect upon humanity?
  7. What new historical facts have changed previous ideas about any of the mentioned diseases?
  8. What world events may have limited research into a particular disease?
  9. What world events may have accelerated epidemics of a disease?
  10. What world events may have accelerate research into a disease?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio,Microbio,Protist and have No Comments

Virus, Monera and Immune System Review Sheet

Bio 11: Virus,Monera and Immune system exam review sheet


Topic One: Virus


  1. Are Viruses alive?
  2. How are viruses classified?
  3. Can you label the structures found in a T phage?
  4. Can you label the structures of an animal virus?
  5. What is the difference between a viral capsid and a viral envelope
  6. Animal viruses viral envelopes are made from what source or molecule?
  7. How is cowpox related to vaccines?
  8. Virus have how many types of “cycles”
  9. Which cycle is active and virulent
  10. Which cycle can cause cancer
  11. What is the one thing that only occurs during the lysogenic cycle for virus?
  12. How does a virus become a prophage?
  13. What is a “retrovirus” and how is it related to a process called “reverse transcription”?
  14. Viruses are now being used to replace missing DNA in Eukaryotic cells, how is this a positive or negative process to do?
  15. There was a flu shot this year and yet many people still got sick, why?


Immune system

  1. What structures are linked to nonspecific defenses of the body?
  2. What is an antigen and how is it related to antibodies?
  3. What cell type makes antibodies?
  4. What structures are linked to Immunity?
  5. What is a “cell mediated” response?
  6. What is a “humoral” or antibody response?
  7. Why are patients with “flus” usually not given antibiotics?
  8. What is passive immunity?
  9. What chemical can be given for flu infections?
  10. B cells differentiate to become what type of cells?
  11. T cells are linked to what type of cellular response?
  12. How does an antibody block a virus from functioning?
  13. How do you make a vaccine?
  14. Why do you get ill after getting a flu shot?
  15. How is this affect linked to primary and secondary response?
  16. What is interferon and how is it related to treatment of HIV?



  1. Eubacteria can be classified by what features?
  2. Some people think that all bacteria are “bad”, can you provide ten reason to debate this statement?
  3. What is the difference between “cellular respiration” and “fermentation” in bacteria?
  4. Which domain linked to Monera is said to survive without oxygen?
  5. What are the three types of shapes for eubacteria?
  6. How can a bacteria adapt to harsh climates?
  7. What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
  8. Why are bacteria called “prokaryotes”?
  9. What asexual process do Monera use?
  10. How could you use a diagram to describe a form of sexual reproduction in bacteria?
  11. What is “transduction” and how could it be linked to making antibodies or other protein structures from bacteria?
  12. What is the difference between forming an endospore and conjugation?
  13. If a bacteria releases a toxic chemical, what is it called?
  14. If a bacteria is able to convert inorganic material, like copper, into energy, what process is involved??
  15. What is the difference between autotroph and heterotroph?
  16. What structures do Monera have for locomotion?
  17. How is the need for oxygen related to how a bacteria can be classified?
  18. How does this type of bacteria make energy?
  19. Which antibiotic is used for gram positive bacteria?
  20. What colour are gram negative bacteria and which drug is not useful to stop them from growing?
  21. What is the difference between an antibody and a toxoid?
  22. All bacteria ( including blue green algae) used to classified as Monera, why have they now been classified as Archeo and Eu bacteria and cyanobacteria?

How to study for this exam


There are three main focal points.

  • Classification
  • DNA and it’s role in evolution
  • The six activities of life.


This exam is focusing on how two different sources of disease can enter your body and what happens.

It is also focusing on classification of a living a non living things.

It is also addressing the distinction between a viral cycle and a life cycle.

Remember that change can occur when DNA is exchanged between living things.


Study strategy:

Work on one section at a time.

Do not just memorize the concepts and terminology.

Imagine that you are trying to explain the content to another person who has no idea what you are talking about, simplify the content and then add on new ideas as they arise.

Remember how we linked world history to pathology

Make some flash cards from quizlet and learn to identify how terms are similar and different.

Find all types of quizzes including multiple choice, true and false, fill the blank and short answer questions.

Do not cram for this exam!

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments

Online Protist Worksheet

What Are Protists?

Name: ______________________________ Date: ____________


In this exercise we will explore the Internet to learn about Protists, but first we need to understand where the Protists fit in the classification system.


Easier said than done!


We have a problem in taxonomy today; the classification of biological organisms is anything but cut-and-dried (or carved in stone)! A certain amount of chaos now reigns and will continue to reign until the next great synthesis occurs among biologists. This means that you can expect a certain amount of disagreement between what textbooks and the various sites on the web will tell you about classification.


Right now you are familiar with two current models of classification:


  • A living thing is either a Prokaryote or Eukaryote.
  • A living thing is in one of the following kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae or Animalia.


We tend to overlay the two as follows:

Prokaryote = Monera

Eukaryote = Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae.


But biologists have many other schemes in the works. One new classification scheme classifies all living things into three “Domains”.


  1. What are the names of the three domains?




  1. Why are the prokaryotes divided into two different domains in this classification model?




  1. How are the Archaea different from the Bacteria?





  1. Which domain are the Protista in?




Some biologists have married the three domain system and the five kingdom system and come up with a six kingdom system (shown below). Note: Archaeabacteria is the old name for Archaea.


Image from W.H. Freeman and Sinauer Associates, used by permission



Within this system, the Protists are the most difficult kingdom to classify!


It is certain that Protists belong in the domain Eukarya, but what characterizes Protists? The Kingdom Protista has become a “dumping ground” for organisms that don’t fit into the other three kingdoms. They are always eukaryotes, but after that just about anything goes. Protist classification is still in such flux that many of the group names are just not worth learning. In fact, some biologists predict that it is likely the Protista will be divided into 10-12 kingdoms in the coming years!


  1. What are the general characteristics of Protista?





Even though opinions vary widely, the kingdom Protista is understood to consist of three general groups. Use your textbook (pg. 401–409) and the web sites below to create a concept map overview of the Protist kingdom. The following terms should be included in your concept map:




  • Diatoms
  • Ciliates
  • Slime Molds
  • Plant-Like Protists – Algae
  • Rhizopods
  • Sporozoans
  • Red Algae
  • Euglenoids
  • Golden Algae
  • Flagellates
  • Fungus-like Protists
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Brown Algae
  • Animal-like Protists- Protozoans
  • Green Algae


Concept Map of Protista
















Now that you have done the overview, let’s learn a little more about a few interesting Protists. First, a well-known representative of the Plant-like Protists:




Euglena have flagella and a gullet like an animal cell. (heterotrophic injestion)


Euglena have chloroplasts like a plant cell (autotrophic photosynthesis)


And Euglena have been known to lose their chloroplasts, forcing them to absorb nutrients from their envronment (Heterotrophic absorbtion)


Consequently, Euglenoids arguably can be classified as animal, plant and fungus!


  1. Two reasons the Eugleonoids are considered to be animal-like are:





  1. What are three ways Euglenoids can eat?





  1. How do Euglenoids move? Does their flagella indicate the front end or the back end of a euglena?





Euglena wants to move towards the light for photosynthesis! Q. How does Euglena orient itself so it can move towards the light? Explain in your own words.






Euglenoids keep their shape because of a pellicle. Q. Define pellicle.






Now let’s move on to some animal-like protists; the Protozoa




Ciliates are an example of animal-like Protists. They are covered with up to 17,000 cilia beating from 40 to 60 times a second in a coordinated fashion!


Cilia are used for locomotion. A movie of a moving paramecium!


The following link is a rather large site on Protista.


Scroll down until you find ciliates and answer the following questions:


  1. What is the difference between a macro- and a micro- nucleus?





  1. How do ciliates deal with osmosis and the influx of excess water?





  1. How do ciliates eat and excrete wastes?





  1. What are trichocysts?







Another Protozoan group we shall examine is called Rhizopoda or Sarcodina.



A typical rhizopod is the ferocious predator Amoeba proteus. The interesting thing about Amoeba is that their cytoplasm can exist in two states: the liquid “sol” endoplasm and the semi-solid “gel” ectoplasm. The two consistencies work together to help the Amoeba move and feed.


So how do they move?


A quick link explaining how they move.


  1. What is a pseudopod?






  1. How does an Amoeba survive harsh environmental conditions?




The Amoeba seems like a harmless little guy, but some species are downright nasty!


  1. What are the symptoms of amoebic dysentery?




Just for fun, check out the Amoeba Dance site.




Finally, let’s take a look at a not-so-nice group of Protozoans – the Sporozoans. These parasitic organisms cannot move on their own because they do not need to! They are passed from host to host in a constant disease cycle.


  1. Scroll down to the section on Sporozoans. Name two human diseases caused by Sporozoans:





  1. A Sporozoan has a different life cycle from the disease-causing Amoeba you saw earlier. What is the major difference in life cycles?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments

Bio 11 Protist Notes

Protist:          A new bunch of organisms…

Some questions to ponder:

  1. How do these animal eat?
  2. How do they regulate water balance?
  3. How do they reproduce?
  4. What are some characteristics that can be used for classification?
  5. How are different types of protists both unique and different?
  6. What is the advantages and disadvantages of living in fresh water?
  7. What is the difference between a zooplankton and a phytoplankton?
  8. What phylums and kingdom do all these creatures belong to?


What is new! ( Comparing Protists to Bacteria and Virus)

  1. Protists are eukaryotes and so have
  • distinct nucleus
  • membrane bound cell organelles
  • unique flagella
  • are single celled
  • have cytoplasmic streaming


  1. Protist can live in a variety of environments, but are now larger so they need to regulate water balance and store and/or make food.


  1. Protist are more diverse in how they move, using flagellums, pseudopods and cilia and intermediate hosts.


  1. Some protists can change their body shape or cell membrane during their life cycle.


  1. Some protists can reproduce using sexual reproduction.


  1. Some protist, are parasitic they are called protozoans and cause diseases.


  1. Some protist have a silicone membranes and can glow in the dark!


  1. Tiny protists are the major food choice of some of the worlds largest animals.


General Protist Notes:

Where are they may found….

  • Usually single cell creatures found in pond water
  • Over 50,000 living species
  • other locations and points of interest include:

used as a means to clean sewage

found in intestines of termites for digestion of cellulose

may be an infectious diseases such as

plasmodium…          which is malaria

trympanosoma….    which is called sleeping sickness

  • protist move in response to several stimuli. This movement is called Protist can respond both to light and chemical stimuli, positive phototropism allows organisms to be attracted to light. Negative tropism allows organisms to avoid harmful stimuli such as predators, low oxygen, lower temperatures and other possible harmful chemical or physical stimuli. This response ( to move away from a stimuli) is called an avoidance response.


On a historic note:

By jove! Forminifera ( type of diatom) has hard shell which are used for    dating early   forms of life. Protozoans also show shell like deposits, an             example is the White Cliffs of Dover in England.



Form and Function:

protists are Eukaryotes so…

  • usually unicellular, so no tissues yet….
  • have a nucleus with a membrane
  • can be motile
  • can be (animal like) heterotrophic or ( plant like) autotrophic
  • have complex arrary cell organelles




Note:  All protist belong to Kingdom Protista, which has four phylums.


  • Mostly Autotrophs called Phytoplankton


  1. Phylum Euglenophyta                         example        Euglena
  • autotrophic, chlorphyll
  • no cell wall
  • move about with flagella
  • found in fresh water and soil
  • attracted to light ( positive phototropic)


  1. Phylum Chrysophyta: example        Diatoms
  • autotrophic, chlorophyll and yellow pigment ( golden algae)
  • silica shell in cell wall form symetric shapes
  • found in oceans
  • positive phototropism
  • silicas used in commercial product such as pool filters, silver polish and            toothpaste


  1. Phylum Pyrrophyta: example        Dinoflagellates
  • autotrophic, chlorophyll, have red pigment which makes “red tide”
  • heavy rigid cell wall
  • two (dino) flagella
  • found in oceans
  • some species glow in dark ( bioluminescence: phenomenon of living      things giving off light, have protein which converts chemical energy to         ight energy.


  • Mostly Heterotrophs called Zooplankton:


  1. Phylum Protozoa ( classified by how they move)
  • usually heterotrophic
  • no cell walls, usually moveable cell membrane
  • can move about or live as parasite


Protozoan classification

class Sarcodinia    Amoeba

class Flagellata       trympanosoma and in termites

class Ciliophora      Paramecium

class Sporozoa       parasitic




Types of Locomotion:

flagella                                   found in Euglena


pseudo pod                          found in Amoeba

(cytoplasmic streaming)


            cilia                                         found in Paramecium


A quick comparison of three protist: ( note highlighted vocabulary)



  1. for movement it uses a flagellum, which makes the Euglena                                                                         very fast.


  1. for storing genetic material it has a nucleus and a nucleolus

which regulates protein sythesis and cell                                                                      control, it is asexual in reproductive behaviour


  1. for energy Euglena are autotrophs and have a chlorplast,                                                                        with chlorophyll which allows for                                                                          photosythesis


  1. for storing energy pyrenoids and parmylum store starch which                                                               is a product of photosythesis


  1. for protection and water it has a pellicle which maintains shape and

balance                                            allows for diffusion across cell membrane.


  1. Response to stimuli Euglena are attracted to light, this is call                                                                        phototropism




  • for locomotions it has extensions of cytoplasm which are                                                                      called pseudopod ( false foot), so an                                                                                   amoeba will move very slow. Ectoplasm ( layer                                                      closest to cell membrane) is water like next to                                                                        internal gel like endoplasm


  • for genetic material it has only one nucleus and is asexual


  • for energy it has food vacuoles which digest food                                                                          with enzymes and move nutrients to


  • to balance water it has contractile vacuoles, in a variety                                                              of positions within cytoplasm


  • to maintain shape it has an inner membrane, endoplasm

and an outer membrane, ectoplasm,                                                                             these two layers are needed since it is                                                                          constantly changing shape.


  • stimuli amoebas are attracted to food and                                                                                 some chemicals but move away from                                                                          harmful chemicals and light. (negative                                                                     tropism)



  • for locomotion it has cilia surrounding whole body so it                                                                        moves very fast.


  • for genetic information there is a micronucleus to controls                                                                                sexual reproduction, ( it divides during                                                                              conjugation)and a macronucleus to                                                                         control cell functions.


  • for feeding it has a “mouth” called an oral groove                                                                           and a mouth pore


  • for digestion it has a gullet which is like a stomach,                                                                           which forms food vacuoles


  • for removal of food waste there is an anal pore


  • for water balance there is a contractile vacuole


  • for shape there is a distinct cell membrane, a                                                                                rigid pellicle which holds cells shape.


  • for stimuli there are small “spears” call trichocyst                                                                                    which serve as a form of protection or                                                                               hunting for food.




  1. Ways to compare Zooplankton:
Function or Structure Euglena Amoeba Paramecium


Flagellum Pseudopod Cilia
Speed of locomotion Moderately Fast Very Slow Very fast
Nutrition or digestion autotroph

manufactures own food with chlorphyll


engulfs food at any point of cell membrane. Digests via food vacuoles


uses oral groove or gullet to suck in food (cyclosis)

Respiration or gas exchange Diffusion through cell membrane Same Same
Excretion of liquids and water balance Contractile vacuole in definite position contractile vacuole may vary in position two contractile vacuoles in definite position
Excretion of solids Through reservoir Pushed through membrane at any point Has an anal pore
Excretion of gaseous wastes Diffuse through cell membrane or through contractile vacuole if dissolved in fluid same same
Reproduction asexual via binnary fission asexual by binnary fission

may form cysts

asexual binary fission

sexual via conjugation

Shape definite shape    
Behaviour responds to light, called phototrophic


+ to food and chemicals

– to light

+ to food and chemicals

– to trichocysts



The Amoeba


a nucleus

granular cytoplasm


semi-permeable membrane

engulfs food by using pseudopod


Other species





The Paramecium

member of class called the ciliates


cilia for locomotion

feeds through funnel like gullet

has 2 nuclei, reproduction through binary fission

for every single cell, 8 new ones are created

contractile vacuole controls water balance

sexual reproduction by conjugation


Protist are:

single cell


can be in colonies ( example: Volvox..has up to 5000 cells in it)

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments

Immune Notes

The Acme “Us and them: Immuno Review”


It is a few days till the exam…you have studied hard. The quiz results are both good and bad…so..it is now the final minutes of the game…you have these options: give up, hope for divine intervention, waste time trying to write answers on a micro chip or apply your wit and will to answer these questions…


Part One:

  • Components of us

How does our body recognize something, which is foreign?

The primary factor is recognizing some “thing”…be it alive or not..which does not fit the patterns we normally sense. For example..what is some thing new? It is some thing that comes along that we have not seen before. More often than not, the first responses is to go “pleech” or “ I don’t want to learn this” or “ that is gross”. So the human body has both a means to reject or accept all thing foreign. The foreign feature is known as an antigen.


So to review..

What is an antigen and where could they be found?

How is it recognized?

What cells are responsible for

  1. identifying a foreign particle
  2. responding to a foreign particle
  3. labeling a foreign particle
  4. removing a foreign particle
  5. remembering a foreign particle


How would you compare:

An antigen to an antibody

A cell mediated response to a antibody or humoral response

  • What is the similar and unique cells of both responses?
  • What does one response make that the other does not?
  • What cell types would increase with either response?
  • What are some true and false comparisons regarding T and B cells?

A passive immunity to an active immunity

  • Which one last for a longer time
  • What type of immunity do you get when you are born?
  • Why do antibiotics only provide a temporary solution?






A virus is said to be both alive and not alive. They are so small that they cannot be filtered but they do form crystals. They have proteins, which means they must have DNA. This DNA can mutate. Because virus can change what proteins they can make with their DNA, this explains why we have so many types of flus. Yet is a virus alive? Does it produce any metabolic products or grow? What is it that signals the body that something foreign is there?


  • What surrounds virus genetic material?
  • Can this structure change and how?
  • When are virus active and not active and what words are used to describe that?
  • How are virus classified?
  • What is the big deal about “interferon”?
  • How do viruses enter the body?
  • What is the scoop with retroviruses?



Now bacteria are alive. Put simply they (bacteria) are soup in a bag in a box. Yet we all know there are lots of types of soups. Likewise, though bacteria are a simple life form labeled as “prokaryotes” there are a lot of forms of diversity. From simple pathogens to photosynthetic nitrogen fixers, the Monera are a diverse bunch of critters.


With this in mind..

  • How many groups can bacteria be classified into?
  • What are the features…that is structures folks..that all prokaryotes share?
  • What are structures       you would or would not find in Monera?
  • How do bacteria reproduce…asexually?
  • What is a form of reproduction that is almost like sexual reproduction?
  • What is the deal with strept, staph, cocci, baccilli and sphirrilium?
  • What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative?
  • How can bacteria survive harsh climates?
  • Can you thoroughly compare anaerobic to aerobic respiration?
  • What are the differences between photosynthesis and chemosythesis?
  • What are the differences between photosynthesis and respiration?
  • What are plant like features in bacteria?
  • What are the interactions implied by the words parasitic, saprophytic, symbiotic, pathogenic, and mutalism?
  • What type of bacteria seeks out light and what is this response called?



Putting it all together….


So a virus or a bacteria enters a body…no it is not a joke..


  • What cells recognize the intruder?
  • What cells turn on and off an immune response?
  • If an intruder start using host fuel, what type of intruder would it be?
  • What is the big deal about monoclonal antibodies ( source, function..and usage’s)
  • What are four specific steps of an antibody or humoral response?
  • What are four specific steps of a cell mediated response and how could you evaluate or see these steps occurring with cell populations or biochemicals
  • What is the difference between a primary and secondary response


So you have a fatal virus…

What would be some examples?

Why would one virus be more virulent than another? For example small pox to HIV?


Possible cures…

What are problems with over using antibiotics?

What is the difference between a vaccine and an antibody?

Comparing types of immunity, which would provide the best or worst immunity

Getting sick

Getting a vaccine with dead pathogen

Getting a vaccine with weak pathogen

Getting an antibody that marks a specific pathogen


What is an allergy?


Finally..you have spent all this time studying this stuff…

Some one then states on the news..

“It is important to learn about the immune response”…could you now debate the pro and cons of this statement?

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments

Bio 11(16-17) L31 Jan 5,2017

Bio 11(16-17) L 31                                       Date Jan 5, 2017



Last lessons Objective



Gram staining Yogurt lab

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Mapping Metabolism

2.   Bacteria Reproduction

3.   Experimental design



Number One

Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in a living thing.

Chemical reactions can:

·      Make things or synthesis or anabolic

·      Break things or decomposition or catabolic

·      Convert acids and bases into water and salt

·      Make energy to store

·      Convert on for of energy into another

·      Make heat

·      Release heat


Day in the life of a bacteria

·      You need to make or get energy

·      You need to digest large molecules into smaller ones

·      You need to absorb nutrients and get ride of waste.

·      You need to make genetic material for cell division

·      You need to construct cell membranes and sometimes cell walls


In class mapping of key activities of life and monera terminology


·      Sources of energy : Auto and Heterotroph

·      Means to get energy: Flagella and cilia, saprophytic, parasitic, symbiotic.

·      What happens to the energy

·      Anaerobic and aerobic respiration

·      The topic of waste: endo and exotoxin

·      Cell Division: Binary fission and Conjugation

·      Locomotion and Response to stimuli


Cartoon assignment

Using your metabolism map made in class, create a comic strip entitled “ a day in the life of a bacteria”


Bacteria Cartoons




Life and bacteria





Number Two

Comparing Asexual and sexual reproduction in bacteria

Asexual makes an exact copy: Binnary Fission

Sexual allows for change in genetic information: Conjugation


Consider the following

1.   Which process allows quick growth?

2.   Which process allows bacteria to adapt to quick change in environment?

3.   Which process could produce resistance to antibiotics?

4.   Which process creates diversity?







Bacterial growth time



Asexual reproduction



Bacteria conjugation







Number Three

Experimenting with Bacteria


Examples of experiments with bacteria

·      http://www.hometrainingtools.com/a/gram-stain-antibiotics-project

·      https://www.sciencecompany.com/Bacteria-Growing-Experiments-in-Petri-Plates.aspx

·      http://www.hometrainingtools.com/a/bacteria-experiment-project

·      http://study.com/academy/lesson/growing-bacteria-in-a-lab-experiments-conditions.html


Microbes in your house



Our preliminary quest is to come up with a working hypothesis to explore gram positive and negative bacteria.


Text book Reference


Chapter Eight: Bacteria

True Bacteria Notes on Blog

You tube Reference Life of a bacteria in the gut



Microbes and human life



Evolutionary history of life






Take Home Message ·      Germs is just a general term for a misunderstood living thing!


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Micro Bio and have No Comments

Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 25 Dec 8

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 26                                         Date Dec 8 2016



Last lessons


1)    Review virus reproductive

2)    Intro to notion of an infection

3)    Intro to immunology


Today’s Objectives 1)    Virus and immune system and big Ideas

2)    Active and Passive Immunity

3)    Introduction to Monera



Number One

·      Defining critical thinking

·      Self evaluation


Virus and immune system


Three Big Ideas

a)   Taxonomy

b)   DNA and Evolutions

c)   Activity of life


1)    Properties of a virus

2)    Virus Quiz



Online Reference






Number Two



Using bio vocab to discuss two types of immunity.


Active: to initiate full immune response with memory

Passive: No immune response just antibodies and no memory


Active verses passive immunity




Bio quizlets


·      https://quizlet.com/10792737/viruses-bacteria-and-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/125940964/bacteria-viruses-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/109837387/chapter-17-chapter-35-viruses-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/42975170/viruses-and-immune-system-flash-cards/



Number Three

Problems to solve:

·      What is Monera?

·      Classification of Monera

·      What do bacteria do?

·      How to observe bacteria


General characteristics of the kingdom Monera are as follows:


•   They are primitive organisms.

•   All organisms of the kingdom are prokaryotes.

•   They are present in both living and non-living environment.

•   They can survive in harsh and extreme climatic conditions like in hot springs, acidic soils etc.

•   They are unicellular organisms.

•   Membrane bound nucleus is absent.

•   DNA is in double stranded form, suspended in the cytoplasm of the organism,referred as nucleoid.

•   A rigid cell wall is present.

•   Membrane bound cellular organelles like mitochondria are absent.

•   Habitat – Monerans are found everywhere in hot springs, under ice, in deep ocean floor, in deserts and on or inside the body of plants and animals.

•   Nutrition – autotrophs – can prepare their own food, heterotrophs – depend on others for food, saprophytes – feed on dead and decaying matter, parasitic – live on other host cells for survival and cause, symbiotic – in mutual relation with other organisms, commensalism – it is where one organism is benefited and the other is not affected, mutualism – where both the organisms are benefited.

•   Respiration – respiration in these organisms vary, they may be obligate aerobes – the organisms must have organisms for survival; obligate anaerobes – the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen; facultative anaerobes – these organisms can survive with or without oxygen.

•   Circulation – is through diffusion.

•   Movement – is with the help of flagella.

Reproduction is mostly asexual, sexual reproduction is also seen. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission, sexual reproduction is by conjugation, transformation and transduction.


Key Points



·      Kingdom verse Domain

·      By structure and by function

·      Defining what is a primitive structure

·      Defining by metabolism



·      Auto and Heterotroph

·      Aerobe and anaerobe

·      Photo and Chemo synthesis

·      Taxis


Positive and negative roles of bacteria


12 Positive roles



A comparison of good to bad




Observing Bacteria


Through a microscope





Looking at petri dishes



Chemical responses and Staining



Yogurt and bacteria




Text book Ref


Gap notes for Bacteria

Chapter 8

Online Youtube videos


·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvcq8LziGd0

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtaATIC0S3E

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZGQfO85uzM



Take Home Message Critical thinking is


“thinking that attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honesty evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments”.


Donald Hatcher

“Reasoning and Writing”

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Micro Bio,Science 10 and have No Comments

Mr C’s Micro Notes

Bacteria Notes:

Part One: Unity and Diversity

Ways to classify bacteria

Shape and size
Gram positive and Gram negative
Metabolism (include respiration and food source)
A. Size and Shape

· Bacteria were first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677 after he had invented the compound microscope.

· Bacteria range in size from about 1 to 10 um long by about 0.2 to 0.3 um across (1 um = .001 mm).

Most bacteria come in one of three different shapes:

(1) Rod shaped: Bacillus(i) [filaments or single].

(2) Spherical shaped: Coccus(i) [pairs, chains, groups or single].

(3) Spiral shaped: Spirillum(a) [seldom in colonies]

Some bacteria tend to form groups:

Diplococci are pairs of spherical shaped bacteria

Streptococci are chains of spherical shaped bacteria

Staphylococci are clusters of spherical shaped bacteria

B: Gram positive and Gram negative

The term gram positive or negative, refers to both a staining proccess and specific structure of bacterial cell membranes or wall. The gram staining method is one of the more important techniques in microbiology. Yet one has to realize that this technique is not 100 percent fool proof. Differences in results can be due to type of stains and age of bacteria.

The staining process follows the following protocal:
Heat fix bacteria to slide
Stain with purple dye (crystal violet), rinse with distilled water
Stain with with iodine (marker), rinse with water
Rinse with alchol wash, functions as a decolorization process in which negative lose colour.
Stain with safranin (red stain) which is counter stain for gram negative

In regards to cell membrane structures:

Gram positive bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan (murein) and teichoic acid. ( basically a sugar based structure combined with amino acids)

Gram negative bacteria also have cell walls composed of a peptidoglycan ( in small amounts) but this layer is surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane.

Comparison of Characteristic of Gram + and Gram –


Gram Positive

Gram Negative

Gram Reaction

Stain dark violet or purple

Stain pink

Ratio RNA to DNA



Nutritional requirements

More complex

Less complex

Susceptability to penicillin


Less marked

Susceptability to streptomycin and tetracycline

Much less


Susceptability to anionic detergents


Less marked

Resistance to sodium azide


Less marked

C: Metabolism and Nutrition

Cell Metabolism:

Nutrients are ingested and then:

1. broken down by enzymes within cell

2. further breakdown of material is done to produce energy

· Energy is absorbed by biochemical ADP (adenine di phosphate)

· Energy is released by biochemical ATP ( adenine tri phosphate)

Energy can be produced with or without oxygen

1. Anearobic: are bacteria that do not need oxygen for cell metabolism

2. Areorobic: are bacteria that require oxygen for cell metabolism

3. Facualtative: are bacteria that can metabolize with or without oxygen

Obligate Aerobes are those which must have oxygen
Obligate Anaerobes are bacteria which cannot tolerate oxygen.
There are many types of nutrition found among bacteria:

Autotrophic Nutrition:

1. Some are photosynthetic (use sunlight energy to produce their own food).

2. Some are chemosynthetic (oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain their

energy to produce their own food).

· These organisms are known as Photoautotrophs and Chemoautotrophs in that they manufacture their own food.

Heterotrophic Nutition.

They must obtain their energy and nutrients from other sources.

For example:

· Saprophytic bacteria : digest materials in their environment by releasing powerful digestive enzymes. They then absorb the digested nutrients.

· Parasitic bacteria : rely on other organisms to provide the digested nutrients directly.

Part Two: Interactions

Bacteria can exist everywhere there is life this includes:

in the air

in the water

in the earth

on plants

in organism

· without bacteria, we as humans could not exist

· bacteria are the most primitive form of life because they:

a) grow and reproduce ( as often as one time every 15 minutes)

b) they use nutrients to survive

c) they have simple cell structures

· it is possible to see bacteria through a light or electron microscope

Bacteria are both helpful and harmful
To preserve or stop bacteria metabolism they can be:

dried out



Dangerous bacteria are called pathogens because they cause diseases.

to control pathogenic bacteria you can remove bacteria by:
removing all bacteria using extreme heat

wash with antiseptic soaps

use antibiotics

specific immunization for specific bacteria proteins

Some bacteria can become resistant to antibodies by altering protein coat or structure of cell wall.
Bacteria can change into dormant forms called spores, which allow the bacteria to stop metabolism in extremely harsh environments

Useful Bacteria

Most bacteria are not pathogenic — include decomposers, nitrogen

fixing bacteria, vitamin producing bacteria, bacteria used to make

insulin and growth hormone, bacteria used in dry cleaning, tanning,

cheese, yogurt

Essential Bacteria:

Bacteria can be helpful because:

· they help plants absorb nutrients from the soil ( specifically nitrogen)

· they are used to make milk products such as yogurt, cheese and butter

· they can be used to manufacture antibiotics

· they can alter biproducts from sewage treatments into non toxic waste

· they can be used to produce specific gases such as methane

· they are used for fermentation

Escherichia coli Gram – rod shape (bacilli)

Sarcina lutea Gram + round shape (cocci)

Bacillus subtilis Gram + rod shape (bacilli)

Bacillus cereus Gram + rod shape (bacilli)

Serratia marcescens Gram – rod shape (bacilli)

Rhodospirillum rubrum Gram – spiral shape (spirilla)

Harmful Bacteria

Harmful bacteria can cause disease (Pathogenic) by interfering with the host’s normal routine, by destroying cells and tissues, by producing endotoxins and exotoxins, and by eliciting an immune response.

· An endotoxin is a toxin within the bacterium that is only released when the bacterium dies and it breaks down.

· An exotoxin is a toxin released by living bacteria.

Koch’s Postulates: –

used to prove that an organism is responsible for a particular disease.

1. must be shown that the organism in question is always present in

the diseased hosts.

2. microbe must be isolated from the host and grown in a pure


3. microbe from pure culture must be capable of producing the

disease symptoms in a new healthy host.

4. microbes isolated from the newly infected host must be grown in a

pure culture and compared to the original micro-organism.


a) Respiratory Tract: Strep throat, Rheumatic fever, Scarlet fever;

Pneumonia, Whooping cough, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis…

b) Skin: Staph (pimples and boils), Leprosy, Gas gangrene…

c) Nervous System: Tetanus, Botulism, Meningitis…

d) Digestive System: Typhoid fever, Cholera, Dysentery; (food

poisoning) Salmonella, Botulism, Staph…

e) Venereal Diseases: Gonorrhea, Syphilis…

Infection by bacteria

There are three lines of defence through which bacteria must


a) through the strong epidermal tissue (skin).. .in wounds, pores,


b) phagocytic white blood cells which engulf foreign materials including bacteria.

c) antibodies produced by other white blood cells.

Active Immunity –

– is slow acting (because the body is taking time to produce antibodies against the infection); but long lasting (because the body produces “memory cells” which “remember” how to produce these specific antibodies again).

Normally produced by actual initial infection (chicken pox), or by using a vaccine (polio, smallpox). The vaccine consists of either weakened (attenuated) bacteria, dead bacteria, or artificial products which resemble the actual foreign invader (antigen).

Passive Immunity

This is fast acting (because the person is injected with antiserum containing the necessary antibodies or antitoxin); but short-lived (because the person does not actually produce the antibodies – hence no memory cells for the future!). The protein antibodies are often provided from the blood of a larger animal such

as a horse! (Tetanus, Rabies). New techniques have been designed so that bacteria can produce specific antibodies. Newborns initially have Passive Immunity through the passage of antibodies across the placenta, and in the Mother’s milk. In some cases, injection of Toxoids stimulate the production of natural antitoxins.

Antibiotics a biological substance which will kill or slow (inhibit) the growth

of an organism.

e.g. Penicillin, Tetracycline, Bacitracin, Ampicillin,


a) must be bacteria-specific.

b) some people are allergic to certain antibiotics.

c) some could kill off useful bacteria.

d) may reduce the competitive pressure and allow

harmful bacteria to survive.

e) may cause resistant strains to develop.

Other biocides include: Sulfur Drugs, antitoxins, various

bacteriocides, disinfectants…

Part Three: Changes with time


1. Bacteria reproduce mostly asexually by a process called BinaryFission. In this method, the circular ring of DNA replicates, and then the cell divides into two daughter cells — each with its own DNA.

2. Some bacteria can also undergo sexual reproduction by a process called Conjugation. In this method, the “male” is connected to the “female” by a tube called a Pilus. The DNA from the “male” then travels through the tube to the “female”. Here, it recombines with the “female” DNA and the “female” bacterium then divides.

Some bacteria can be Transformed into a different cell by absorbing fragments of DNA of other cells. In another method of producing recombined bacterial DNA, bacteriophages (viruses) carry portions of the bacterial DNA from one cell to another. This process is called Transduction.
4. When environmental conditions are not favourable, some bacteria are capable of forming highly resistant thick-walled Endospores until conditions once again return to normal.

Part Four Form and Function

Cell Structure:

A bacteria cell has the following structures:

Nuclear material in the form of DNA to pass on genetic information

Cell membrane: which controls the flow of material in and out of a cell

Ribosome: which assist in making cell proteins

Cell wall



Response to Stimulus:

Bacteria Lab Questions:

1. Why must you always use sterile technique when working with


2. What does “pathogenic” mean?

3. What is an “inoculum”?

4. List three general rules for handling bacteria.

5. When is the Pour Plate Method of culturing bacteria used?

6. Why must you be careful in regulating the temperature of the melted agar in the Pour Plate Method?

7. In procedure 7 in each of the labs, why did you have to flame the mouths of the test tubes?

8. What is the reason for using the streak plate method?

9. What is the reason for using the Pour plate method?

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments