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Anatomy and Physiology (muscle cells) Jan 10th 2020

Anatomy and Physio Tissues Labs (Muscle Tissue) Jan 8th 2020

 

 

Topic Key Points Resource

 

Organs are made of tissues Worksheet labelling tissues found in anatomical structures

Three  types of muscle tissue

Skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Overview by Khan academy

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-human-body-systems/hs-body-structure-and-homeostasis/a/tissues-organs-organ-systems

 

Skeletal muscle Are defined by structure and function

a)     Voluntary (controlled movement)

b)    Striation due to overlapping protein.

c)     Due to overlapping muscle bundles they appear multi nucleated

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ap1x94x1/?s=lab+5.6

 

Cardiac Muscle Are defined by structure and function

a)     Involuntary ( autonomic nervous)

b)    Cylindrical fibres

c)     Intercalates discs ( join cells )

What is the function of the intercalated discs?

https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/10-1-overview-of-muscle-tissues/

 

 

Smooth muscle Are defined by structure and function

a)     Spindle shaped fibres

b)    Central nuclei

c)     Found in walls of internal organs or viscera.

d)    Contracts (involuntary via autonomic system.

e)    Called “smooth” due to lack of striation

Which organs have smooth muscle?

Videos on muscles

Crash Course

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ktv-CaOt6UQ

 

Muscle Basics for Athletes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=94Q-fvCAJzQ

 

Take home The job of muscle is to move something.

Striation is linked to what?

What organelles would be in muscle and why?

What elements are vital for muscles and why?

Worksheet handed out for lab
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Anatomy and Physiology Lesson Jan 8

Anatomy and Physio Tissues Labs ( Epithelial Tissue) Jan 8th2020

 

 

Topic Key Points Resource

 

Organs are made of tissues Worksheet labelling tissues found in anatomical structures Overview by Khan academy

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/high-school-biology/hs-human-body-systems/hs-body-structure-and-homeostasis/a/tissues-organs-organ-systems

 

Epithelial tissues Are defined by

a)     Layers ( simple or striated)

b)    Shape of cells

Squamous

Cuboidal

Columnar

c)     Cell membrane structurs such as cilia

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ap1x94x1/chapter/examining-epithelial-tissue-under-the-microscope/

 

Role of tissues Note: diversity of names of epithelial tissue is due to diversity of functions of the tissue.

Functions (5):

Absorption

Barrier

Protection

Secretion

 

https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/4-2-epithelial-tissue/

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Acme Guide for Anatomy and Physiology DNA and Enzyme evolution

Acme Guide for Anatomy and Physiology DNA to Enzymes Test

 

Topic  
DNA  
Basics ·      What is the backbone of DNA composed of?

·      What compliment base pairs?

·      What structures in DNA make “genes”?

·      Why are the amounts of Adenine in DNA equal to Thymine?

·      If a gene has 120 base pairs, how many amino acids are in the protein?

·      DNA is called a semiconservative molecule, why?

·      DNA is called a supercoiled molecule, why?

·      Could you compare DNA to RNA using a table to compare structures and function?

 

Replication ·      Can you identify base pairs during replication?

·      Using a diagram of DNA making a new strand, how could you matching base pair. How would this change if the DNA is make RNA?

·      In replication which bonds are broken?

·      If DNA was replicating with radioactive Thymine, would it show up in future generations DNA? Why

·      In order, what are the four events that occur in DNA replication?

·      What are the enzymes involved with Replication?

 

Transcription ·      If you were given a DNA strand of code, could you predict the sequence of amino acids in the protein?

·      What are the enzymes in transcription?

·      What is produced in transcription?

·      If you were given a strand of DNA code, could you predict the effect of deleting one base in that code by showing the final amino acid sequence?

·      What are two factors that could change what protein would be formed?

 

Translation ·      In protein synthesis where and when are peptide bonds formed?

·      In protein synthesis where does transcription and translation occur?

·      rRNA is produced by which process?

·      What are the enzymes in translation?

·      What are the steps of protein synthesis from DNA to making a protein?

·      When does the base Thymine change to Uracil? Why?

·      Looking at the complete process of protein synthesis what is the purpose for:

a)     Ribosome moving to mRNA

b)    Adenine bonding to thymine

c)     An amino acid bonding to specific tRNA

d)    Forming a peptide bond

Gene Manipulation ·      What is recombinant DNA? Where does the DNA come from?

·      Using a diagram of a cells or bacteria cells DNA, how could recombinant DNA be used to make a specific protein

 

Enzymes ·      What is the sequence of events from combining substrate to enzyme and either making or breaking a chemical bond to make a new product?

·      What is the lock and key theory and how is it different from an enzyme whose active site changes? What is that process called?

What is :

·      Competitive inhibition

·      Non-competitive inhibition

·      Non-reversible inhibition

·      Coenzyme activity

Could you show the above interactions with a diagram?

 

Can you interpret graphs:

·      For amount of product vs progress of the reaction (time)

·      Rate of reaction vs Enzyme concentration

·      Energy level vs progress of reaction

·      Effect of denaturing an enzyme due to temperature

·      Effect of denaturing an enzyme due to ph.

·      Effect of denaturing and enzyme due to heavy metal

·

Enzyme lab interpretation ·      Interpreting enzyme lab results, a colour indicator is used to show the presence of a product.

·      Looking at a data table, could you predict the change in a colour due changes is substrate, acid, temperature, heavy metal, or increase of decreased concentrations of enzyme?

Interpretation of enzyme flow chart (see notes) If you were shown an interaction between two enzyme such as:

 

A with (enzyme 1) goes to B with (enzyme 2) goes to C

 

What would be two ways to increase the production of product C

 

What would be two ways to slow down or stop production of product C

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes,DNA and Protein Synthesis and have No Comments

Anatomy Take Home

This is template number three..

Please look for revisions.

Anatomy and Physio: Take Home Exam

 

“Written in the Code”

 

Your mission to prove understanding of two processes involving DNA.

 

The two processes you need to explore are:

 

  • The process and function of replication.
  • The process and function of Protein synthesis.

 

You will show proficiency in understand by completing three specific challenges

 

Challenge one:

You are to provide a detailed diagram that shows the both structures and functions of   biomolecules involved with DNA replication.

You are to provide a detailed diagram that shows the structures and functions of biomolecules in the process of  Protein Synthesis.

You are to show all steps of this process including what initiates and stops it.

Your diagram should be a hybrid of many diagrams found within your notes, text and online.

Your diagram should include at least 36 terms found in your references.

( You can make a combined list of terms and processes prior to making the diagram)

Your reference should be a bibliography.

 

Challenge Two

For each process you need to write a one page (two sided) translational story to discuss the process.

A translational process can be a children’s story, a screenplay, but not a step by step text book description!

Extra mark will be added for creativity.

 

Challenge Three: Pragmatic Example.

You are to find three practical examples for how replication is linked to either medicine or bioengineering.

You are to find three practical examples of how is DNA and protein synthesis associated with

Gene therapy or biological research.

You provide a descriptive paragraph for each example.

One example should be from popular media.

One example should be from a crediable science resource.

One example should be an abstract from a current lab

 

Challenge Four: Find and answer 2 BC provincial written questions

Look up versions of BC provincial Biology exam questions  (written portion) and select two questions for each process. You should also include answer key.

 

The bonus round…Make a link between your two stories to show links associated with the replication of DNA and the process of protein synthesis. What is a link? How do your two stories show commonality between replication and protein synthesis

 

Rubric

Mission One Below Expectations Meet Expectation Exceeds expectations
Mission One Clarrity in diagram

Table that Includes total minimum 36 terms.

Shows each stage of process

Has a biobliography

Colour coded for processes

Has labels to show specific process

Mission  Two 2 stories

Type written

Two sides of one paper per story.

Words are highlighted

Creativity factor added for style of story

Mission Three Should have a total of six paragraphs,  type written with bibliography.

3 levels

a) Common News/Media

b) Scholastic reference ( from a university source ).

c) specific abstract from a lab

 

Mission Four Total of 4 provincial written questions (two per topic) with answer key

 

Bonus Explain link between two stories

 

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Anatomy and Physiology:How does a cell work?

How does a cell work?

You mission is to make three detailed diagrams of organelles and building blocks to make”

a) Pathway from Nucleus to cell membrane to make a protein.

b) Pathway to make a complex fat (such as steroids) and or detoxifying an alcohol to make a fat.

c) Pathway into and out of a mitochondria.

 

Step one:

Make a labelled two dimensional drawing of organelles involved for three pathways.

Step two:

Include building block to make specific biomolecules and also show where these building block come from.

For example: Lysosome to make amino acids that are then transported to ribosomes to make protein.

Step Three

For cellular respiration you should include pathways (by name) within the mitochondria matrix. Also show construction of ATP including ATPase and concentration gradient. In one half of mitochondria show what is going into the mitochondria, on the second half, discuss what is being constructed and then released from the mitochondria.

Not that you should pay attention to all molecules including: biomolecules, water, hydrogen and possible ions.

This sheet will be used to answer specific multiple choice questions.

It should be prepared for next class.

 

Please look at the following to get a better understanding of working of cell

Mitochondria

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/structure-of-a-cell/tour-of-organelles/v/mitochondria-video

Smooth ER

Mitochondria

 

cheers.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Night before exam and all through the house..

For Bio 12 Anatomy and Physiology Students..

Please get some sleep tonight!

Here is a site with good data for your cheat sheet.

Chemistry of life Water https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/water/

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Lesson 7: Anatomy and Physiology Sept 18, 2019 Lipids and Proteins

Anatomy and Physiology 12  ( L7)  Sept Lesson Wednesday 18

 

Intro Content Evaluations and Resource
Topic One Biology is a story

“Feed the good wolf”

“Make tea”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__cdpyF5nLk

https://www.facebook.com/notes/tanata-taraobed/drinking-tea-when-theres-no-way-out-ajahn-brahm/706340452739795/

 

Topic Two Lipid structure and function Lipid notes

In class power point

Khan Academy

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/macromolecules/lipids/v/lipid-overview

Bowman Biology

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VGHD9e3yRIU

 

Topic Three Whoops with lipids, trans fats and steriods Video on trans fats

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnDtfGJXSHA

Video on steroids

Pro and Cons

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXaDDa3FB5Q

Role of Cholesterol

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0U7YHRW5dyc

 

Topic Four Intro to Proteins Khan academy / Protein Structure

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/macromolecules/proteins-and-amino-acids/v/overview-of-protein-structure

Bomen Biology/ Proteins

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Jgb_DpaQhM&t=99s

 

Take home   You are what you eat. Take time to feed the good wolf and when stressed..drink a cup of tea! Now..study up on functions of protein.

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 Circulatory Exam Review

Topic Questions

 

Chapter
Heart Anatomy Using a diagram, be able to label all blood vessels, valves and chambers

Note:

·      4 valves and locations (note two names that can change).

·      4 blood vessels and location

·      4 chambers and location

·      Cartilage to limit motion of valves

·      Cardiac blood vessels

·      Papillary Muscles

·      Purkinje fibres

·      Chordae tendinae

 

·      What tissue or structures surrounds the heart?

·      What is the tissue lining the inside of the ventricles?

 

10

 

see notes

Blood vessel

Away and to the heart

Using the diagram from page 1 of your notes:

Identify changes in

·      Pressure

·      Velocity

·      Surface Area

 

Identify reasons for changes in velocity, pressure and cross section area

 

Which blood vessel has the largest or the smallest diameter?

 

Which blood vessel has the most or least amount of muscle

 

Which blood vessels show a pulse

 

How is a vein suited for its function?

 

Why are the advantages of slowing blood in capillary bed?

 

What are the primary blood vessels that go to:

·      The intestines

·      The kidney

·      The legs

·      The head

 

Which blood vessels have a high concentrations of:

·      Oxygen

·      Carbon Dioxide

·      Nutrients

·      Waste

 

·      During an operation, a surgeon slices a blood vessel, what clues would identify if it were a vein or artery?

 

·      Why would tissues of capillaries have a high number of mitochondria?

 

Cardiac Cycle ·      Heart rate is controlled by which part of the brain?

·      What is the difference between a pulse and the cardiac cycle?

·      What are the specific steps of the cardiac cycle?

 

ECG ·      What is a pass maker and the natural pacemaker in the heart

·      What is the difference between P and T waves

·      What disorders of the heart could be linked to length and height of EKG?

 

Lymphatic system ·      How are lymph capillary similar to veins

·      How are lacteals associated with the circulatory system?

 

Blood flow ·      What is the correct path of blood from the heart to the lungs, back to the heart and then to the body

·      What are the blood vessels in this paths

 

 

Blood Pressure ·      What is the relationship between

·      Systole and Diastole

 

·      What blood vessel would have a pressure of 35 to 16 Hg

 

·      Which organs can influence blood pressure besides the kidney?

 

·      What are two no medicinal ways that the body can lower or raise blood pressure?

 

Whoops  

What is a:

·      Stint

·      Coronary by pass

·      Stroke

·      Aneurysm

·      Heart attack

·      Hemorrhage

 

·      What is the relationship between a thrombus and embolus?

 

·      What are two symptoms that would be noticed if the valve between your right atrium and right ventricle is not working correctly

 

·      How are “plague” and a coronary by pass related?

 

Fetal Blood Flow ·      What are the four adaptions of fetal blood flow?

·      What is the function of the Foremen ovale?

·      What is the function of the Ductous arteriosus?

 

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Feb 2018 Timeline

Bio 12 Time Line

 

 

Date Lesson Topics Activity Assessment
Feb 1   Digestion Activity focusing on

Enzymes

Stomach hormones

Large intestines.

2 Hand outs

rabbit hole

What is ciliac disorder and is there a link to menopause?

 
5th Pig Dissection External Anatomy and internal viscera

 

Virtual pig dissection

https://www.whitman.edu/academics/departments-and-programs/biology/virtual-pig

 

 
7th Pig Dissection Internal anatomy

 

 
9 Intro to Circulatory “the pipes”

circulation flow

Basics of arteries, veins and capillary. (Blood vessels)

 

Cross section of vessels and flow rate and pulse

 

Two circuits of flow

 

Notes Page 1

 

3 specific diagrams and graphs

 

Pig Lab Quiz

Power point

 

14 Heart Heart Anatomy

Cardiac Flow

Cardiac Cycle

Heart Beat

EKG

Page 2-3

 

Digestion Quiz

(MC 28 questions)

 

16 Circulatory 2 Study guide for Heart and blood flow

Vascular pathways

Blood pressure and pulse

 

Digestion Exam
21 Circ 3

 

Lymphatic system

Fetal Blood flow

Cardiac and systemic pathology

 

 
23 Circ 4 Study guide for exam

 

Circulatory Quiz
27 Circ to Blood Hand out notes for Blood Circulatory Exam

 

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 Cheat Sheet Guide for DNA and Enzymes

Chapter 5/ 24 Cheat Sheet Topics

 

 

Chapt Key Topic Questions
  DNA a)   What is found in Nucleic Acid
    b)   Why are ratios of base pairs linked to type of base?
    c)    What portion of DNA define genes?
    d)   Where does replication occur
    e)   What are the steps and proteins involved in replication?
    f)     What is the backbone of DNA made of?
    g)   How can you use a diagram of DNA replication to identify specific base pairs
    h)   What are three properties of DNA? (SAS)
    i)     What are the specific steps for both replication.
     
  Protein Synthesis ·      Where does RNA get made in a cell?

·      What is involved in:

·      Transcription

·      Translation

    What is the function of

·      mRNA

·      tRNA

·      rRNA

    What are the structure and function of a

a)DNA

b) Codone

c) Anticodon

d)triplet

    How do you use mRNA and tRNA tables to define what proteins should be created from a strand of DNA?
    What is the role of restrictive enzymes in protein synthesis?
  Mutations What is a definition for “mutation”

How would the code for a protein change for point mutations?

  Bio tech How does recombinant DNA work?
    How can helicase and polymerase be used in biotechnology?
     
  Enzymes ·      What is the role of enzymes in reactions
    ·      What is activation energy
    ·      How can you increase or decrease an enzyme reaction?
    ·      What is the role of a coenzyme?
    ·      What two theories are linked to enzymes?
    ·      What are three factors that can create a significant change in an enzyme?
    ·      There are four types of bonds in enzymes, which 3 factors factors affect these four types of bonds and how?
    ·      What is competitive inhibition
    ·      How can a coenzyme help an enzyme work? (example?)
    ·      How can an end product of a metabolic pathway be used to control its own production?
    ·      In our class experiment we used the enzyme “amylase” to break down corn starch, what would happen if we used pepsin instead?
    ·      What are four factors that could slow or speed up an enzymatic reaction. (note this is not to denature the enzyme)
    ·      How did we use a data table to decide which enzyme has been denatured?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments