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Anatomy and Physiology:How does a cell work?

How does a cell work?

You mission is to make three detailed diagrams of organelles and building blocks to make”

a) Pathway from Nucleus to cell membrane to make a protein.

b) Pathway to make a complex fat (such as steroids) and or detoxifying an alcohol to make a fat.

c) Pathway into and out of a mitochondria.


Step one:

Make a labelled two dimensional drawing of organelles involved for three pathways.

Step two:

Include building block to make specific biomolecules and also show where these building block come from.

For example: Lysosome to make amino acids that are then transported to ribosomes to make protein.

Step Three

For cellular respiration you should include pathways (by name) within the mitochondria matrix. Also show construction of ATP including ATPase and concentration gradient. In one half of mitochondria show what is going into the mitochondria, on the second half, discuss what is being constructed and then released from the mitochondria.

Not that you should pay attention to all molecules including: biomolecules, water, hydrogen and possible ions.

This sheet will be used to answer specific multiple choice questions.

It should be prepared for next class.


Please look at the following to get a better understanding of working of cell



Smooth ER




posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Night before exam and all through the house..

For Bio 12 Anatomy and Physiology Students..

Please get some sleep tonight!

Here is a site with good data for your cheat sheet.

Chemistry of life Water https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/water/


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Lesson 7: Anatomy and Physiology Sept 18, 2019 Lipids and Proteins

Anatomy and Physiology 12  ( L7)  Sept Lesson Wednesday 18


Intro Content Evaluations and Resource
Topic One Biology is a story

“Feed the good wolf”

“Make tea”




Topic Two Lipid structure and function Lipid notes

In class power point

Khan Academy


Bowman Biology



Topic Three Whoops with lipids, trans fats and steriods Video on trans fats


Video on steroids

Pro and Cons


Role of Cholesterol



Topic Four Intro to Proteins Khan academy / Protein Structure


Bomen Biology/ Proteins



Take home   You are what you eat. Take time to feed the good wolf and when stressed..drink a cup of tea! Now..study up on functions of protein.


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 Circulatory Exam Review

Topic Questions


Heart Anatomy Using a diagram, be able to label all blood vessels, valves and chambers


·      4 valves and locations (note two names that can change).

·      4 blood vessels and location

·      4 chambers and location

·      Cartilage to limit motion of valves

·      Cardiac blood vessels

·      Papillary Muscles

·      Purkinje fibres

·      Chordae tendinae


·      What tissue or structures surrounds the heart?

·      What is the tissue lining the inside of the ventricles?




see notes

Blood vessel

Away and to the heart

Using the diagram from page 1 of your notes:

Identify changes in

·      Pressure

·      Velocity

·      Surface Area


Identify reasons for changes in velocity, pressure and cross section area


Which blood vessel has the largest or the smallest diameter?


Which blood vessel has the most or least amount of muscle


Which blood vessels show a pulse


How is a vein suited for its function?


Why are the advantages of slowing blood in capillary bed?


What are the primary blood vessels that go to:

·      The intestines

·      The kidney

·      The legs

·      The head


Which blood vessels have a high concentrations of:

·      Oxygen

·      Carbon Dioxide

·      Nutrients

·      Waste


·      During an operation, a surgeon slices a blood vessel, what clues would identify if it were a vein or artery?


·      Why would tissues of capillaries have a high number of mitochondria?


Cardiac Cycle ·      Heart rate is controlled by which part of the brain?

·      What is the difference between a pulse and the cardiac cycle?

·      What are the specific steps of the cardiac cycle?


ECG ·      What is a pass maker and the natural pacemaker in the heart

·      What is the difference between P and T waves

·      What disorders of the heart could be linked to length and height of EKG?


Lymphatic system ·      How are lymph capillary similar to veins

·      How are lacteals associated with the circulatory system?


Blood flow ·      What is the correct path of blood from the heart to the lungs, back to the heart and then to the body

·      What are the blood vessels in this paths



Blood Pressure ·      What is the relationship between

·      Systole and Diastole


·      What blood vessel would have a pressure of 35 to 16 Hg


·      Which organs can influence blood pressure besides the kidney?


·      What are two no medicinal ways that the body can lower or raise blood pressure?



What is a:

·      Stint

·      Coronary by pass

·      Stroke

·      Aneurysm

·      Heart attack

·      Hemorrhage


·      What is the relationship between a thrombus and embolus?


·      What are two symptoms that would be noticed if the valve between your right atrium and right ventricle is not working correctly


·      How are “plague” and a coronary by pass related?


Fetal Blood Flow ·      What are the four adaptions of fetal blood flow?

·      What is the function of the Foremen ovale?

·      What is the function of the Ductous arteriosus?



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Feb 2018 Timeline

Bio 12 Time Line



Date Lesson Topics Activity Assessment
Feb 1   Digestion Activity focusing on


Stomach hormones

Large intestines.

2 Hand outs

rabbit hole

What is ciliac disorder and is there a link to menopause?

5th Pig Dissection External Anatomy and internal viscera


Virtual pig dissection



7th Pig Dissection Internal anatomy


9 Intro to Circulatory “the pipes”

circulation flow

Basics of arteries, veins and capillary. (Blood vessels)


Cross section of vessels and flow rate and pulse


Two circuits of flow


Notes Page 1


3 specific diagrams and graphs


Pig Lab Quiz

Power point


14 Heart Heart Anatomy

Cardiac Flow

Cardiac Cycle

Heart Beat


Page 2-3


Digestion Quiz

(MC 28 questions)


16 Circulatory 2 Study guide for Heart and blood flow

Vascular pathways

Blood pressure and pulse


Digestion Exam
21 Circ 3


Lymphatic system

Fetal Blood flow

Cardiac and systemic pathology


23 Circ 4 Study guide for exam


Circulatory Quiz
27 Circ to Blood Hand out notes for Blood Circulatory Exam



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 Cheat Sheet Guide for DNA and Enzymes

Chapter 5/ 24 Cheat Sheet Topics



Chapt Key Topic Questions
  DNA a)   What is found in Nucleic Acid
    b)   Why are ratios of base pairs linked to type of base?
    c)    What portion of DNA define genes?
    d)   Where does replication occur
    e)   What are the steps and proteins involved in replication?
    f)     What is the backbone of DNA made of?
    g)   How can you use a diagram of DNA replication to identify specific base pairs
    h)   What are three properties of DNA? (SAS)
    i)     What are the specific steps for both replication.
  Protein Synthesis ·      Where does RNA get made in a cell?

·      What is involved in:

·      Transcription

·      Translation

    What is the function of

·      mRNA

·      tRNA

·      rRNA

    What are the structure and function of a


b) Codone

c) Anticodon


    How do you use mRNA and tRNA tables to define what proteins should be created from a strand of DNA?
    What is the role of restrictive enzymes in protein synthesis?
  Mutations What is a definition for “mutation”

How would the code for a protein change for point mutations?

  Bio tech How does recombinant DNA work?
    How can helicase and polymerase be used in biotechnology?
  Enzymes ·      What is the role of enzymes in reactions
    ·      What is activation energy
    ·      How can you increase or decrease an enzyme reaction?
    ·      What is the role of a coenzyme?
    ·      What two theories are linked to enzymes?
    ·      What are three factors that can create a significant change in an enzyme?
    ·      There are four types of bonds in enzymes, which 3 factors factors affect these four types of bonds and how?
    ·      What is competitive inhibition
    ·      How can a coenzyme help an enzyme work? (example?)
    ·      How can an end product of a metabolic pathway be used to control its own production?
    ·      In our class experiment we used the enzyme “amylase” to break down corn starch, what would happen if we used pepsin instead?
    ·      What are four factors that could slow or speed up an enzymatic reaction. (note this is not to denature the enzyme)
    ·      How did we use a data table to decide which enzyme has been denatured?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Review Questions for Chapter 3 and 4 exam

Bio 12 Cell Biology and Membrane Review



Topic Subtopic  
Cell Biology Energy ·      Which organelle is linked to cellular respiration.

·      What does it need?

·      What products are made?

·      Which organelle oxidizes glucose?

·      How is a mitochondria linked to prokaryotic cells?


  Plant Cells What process is linked to:

·      Cell walls

·      Making sugar

·      Storing water

·      What organelles or structures are unique to just plants?

·      How could you identify a chloroplast in a group of organelles diagrams?


  Making Protein ·      What type of molecules are made in the RER.

·      What structure can be used to identify RER?

·      How could you identify proteins used for within the cell verses being made to leave the cell?

·      Which leaves the nucleus, DNA or RNA and why?


  Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton ·      What is role of cytosplasm and cytosol?

·      What is the role of cytoskeleton?

·      How is protein structure linked to cytoskeletons?

  Making lipids ·      What type of molecules are made in the SER

·      What are two functions of the SER?

·      Would SER make both hormones and detox what enters a cell?

·      How is the SER linked to cholesterol?

·      Do SER modify and activate hormones?

  Eating cells ·      What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
  Vesicles and cells ·      What is the role of endocytosis

·      What is the role of exocytosis

  Packaging ·      What type of molecules leave the cell inside vescicles?

·      Looking at a cell diagram, how could you distinquish between ER and Golgi?

    ·      How does a lysosome digest what is inside a vesicle?
  Information ·      What is the distinction between nucleus and nucleolus?

·      What process is linked to the nucleolus?

·      What process is linked to the nucleus?

  Microtubules, filaments and more ·      Which filament has a 9+2 pattern?

·      Which filament has a 9+2 pattern?

  Cell behavior Which solutions cause a cell to:

a)   shrink or creanate?

b)   swell or burst?

c)    stay the same?


  Cell Metabolism ·      What is the sequence to make, package and then release a vesicle?

·      Which organelles require hydrolytic enzymes?

·      What structures are found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?


  Structure ·      What are the main molecules found in a cell’s membrane?

·      Which are hydrophobic?

·      Can you identify structure of a cell membrane using a diagram of the cell membrane?

·      Are cell membranes found is just plant or animal cells?

·      What is the purpose of cholesterol in the cell membrane?


  Diffusion and osmosis ·      How can you use a “u” tube to describe movement through a semi permeable membrane?
  Passive ·      What are some example of facilitated or passive moment across a cell membrane.

·      What are two characteristic about passive transport that are different that active transport


  Active ·      How does the thyroid gland get such a high level of Iodine within the cells of that gland?

·      Which molecules are actively transported across a membrane?

·      Can you label and discuss the sodium potassium shunt?

  Integration Questions How is hydrostatic pressure related to osmotic pressure?


What are the relationships both in structure and function of SER and the Golgi Apparatus?


What organelles could be linked to the following cells and why:

·      Thyroid gland

·      Muscle cell

·      Photosynthetic cell

·      Gland cell

·      Neuron


What multiple mechanisms are involved in the movement of:

·      Water

·      Sodium ions

·      Amino acids



What are three ways that active transport differs from diffusion across a cell membrane?


What would happen if you put a saltwater fish egg into fresh water?


Why would you store a marine invertebrate in fresh water?


How would you know if a human was drowned in fresh water or salt water if you looked at their lung cells?


What is the difference between a semipermeable membrane and a selectively permeable membrane.


How could you make a semipermeable membrane work faster?

  Vocab Check Can you identify or match structures with functions.

·      Nucleus

·      Nucleolus

·      RER

·      SER

·      Golgi Apparatus

·      Cilia

·      Polysome

·      Basal Body

·      Flagella

·      Cilia

·      Centriole


Format Multiple Choice Diagrams and statements

Problem solve with tonicity

Sequence of events

Labeling cellular structures

  Short Answers Comparison questions

Predictions with solutions

  Matching Structures with functions.



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 (17-18) Chapter 4 Membranes Oct 26,2017

Bio 12 (16-17) L14                              Date: Oct 26


Last lessons


Class Notes or Information

1.   Cell membrane structures




Today’s Objective 1.   Osmosis, what is the difference between diffusion and facilitated diffusion?

2.   Work sheet on Organelles and Osmosis questions

3.   Selectively permeable membrane worksheet


Number One

To answer the question for objective number one and to provide information to solve topic 3 challenge











From this information, what do you notice?


Two options!



Number Two

In preparation for dialysis lab


Semi permeable verse Selectively Permeable

Movement across membranes with proteins


Modeling membranes



Comparison Youtube



Analogy youtube





Number Three

Passive, Facilitated verses Active transport


Step one: Passive compared to Active




nice graphic analogy of kayaking as a way to compare active to passiv transport




A good English video



A..um..written powerpoint.



A..hands on verbal description




Text Reference Chapter Three

Cell organelle practice quizzes

·      https://www.biologycorner.com/quiz/qz_cell.html

·      http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=cell-organelles-their-functions

·      http://anatomycorner.com/cell/cell_quiz.html

·      http://www.sciencegeek.net/Biology/review/U1Organelles.htm

·      http://www.cellsalive.com/quiz1.htm


Google hunt Cell metabolism and organelles

·      http://www.edu.pe.ca/gray/class_pages/rcfleming/cells/notes.htm

·      http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/organelles.html

·      http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes1.htm



Class Notes References    
Take Home message



We need to discover which makes a better French fry. Soak the whole potato with skin in salt water

Soak cut slices of potatoes in salt water

Soak cut slices of potatoes in fresh water

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 L 6 (17-18) Cells

Bio 12 (17-18) L 6                             Date: Sept 26 2017


Last lessons Objective


1.    Nucleic acid to ATP, RNA and DNA  
Today’s Objective a)    Practice quiz identifying biomolecules

b)   How to study productively

c)    Introduction to the cell



Number One

Review of structure and function of biomolecules



Number Two

How to study productively

Studying is a balance between what you do and why you do it.

·      If you change the reason why you study, then you will also change what you do.

·      If you start study sessions with an objective to learn and take a quiz to discover what you do not know, then after a study session you can note how much you have processed by retaking the same evalutation.

·      Text books already have questions within each chapter to focus your attention on the specific information that could answer the questions within the text.

·      Information can be ranked from finding a simple fact by asking “what”.

·      As you change the question from what to how or why, you need find more evidence to answer the question.

·      Making to notes to memorize limits the depth of information you can discover.

·      Linking facts together fact with facts can be used explain both how and why,

·      The objective of each study session should be to evolve from simple whats to hows and whys.

·      Remember..the mind is like a parachute, it only works if it is open.

·      When you study, open your path of inquiry



Number Three

Introduction to the Cell

a)    The cell Theory



b)   Myths about cells (shape and types)

A cool story



c)    Importance of surface area to volume



d)   Life inside and outside of the cell





Text Reference Chapter 3

Google Inquiry to life chapter three power point and download.



You tube Reference Really cool stuff!


Cells Alive Site (videos, quizzes and more..oh my)




Cell structure



Cell structure and function



BBC The cell:the hidden kingdom



BBC secret of life




Class Notes References New set of class notes handed out


Link for Cell Bio Notes



Answer Key for review notes


Find the review sheet first…was posted in last lesson





New References to practice tests. (Thanks David!)

They are two websites that have quizzes based on the textbook we use. Both links are the same, it’s just a preference of HTML formatting because link 2 has a “nicer” format.


If you click on Link 1, it’s pretty easy to navigate at first glance.


Link 2 is a bit trickier, and you’ll need to look on the left side of the page, then click on the drop-down box to select the chapter.


Link 1) http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/maderinquiry/quiz.html


Link 2) http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072421975/student_view0/index.html



Take Home message



To be inspired…you need to let go of those things that make you uninspired.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 L 6 (2017-18) Sept 20

Bio 12 L6 (2017-18)                           Date: Sept 19th 2017


Last lessons Objective Class Notes or Information

1.   Proteins and bonds

2.   Protein functions and denaturing

3.   Introduction to nucleic acids





Today’s Objective 1.   Big Picture

2.   PPT for Chapter Two

3.   The next step “Cells” Chapter 3


Number One

Nutrition and Metabolism



Pleae note the role of these molecules in metabolism.




Nucleic Acids

Note that all four biomolecules have a link to energy.

Note that glucose makes 38 ATP molecules





Number Two

Three versions of chapter 2 powerpoint, you will need to download.




Practice quiz for Chapter Two








Number Three

Please download

Raycroft notes and worksheets









Text Reference Chapter Two

Molecules of life


You tube Reference Chemistry of life



Chemical Bonds



Nutrition and Metabolism



Bioenergetics by Bozeman




Class Notes References

and home work

Study for multiple choice quiz on Friday.




Take Home message



Life…requires free energy yet cell phones and Netflix do not apply. Evaluation Next Class


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments