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Bio 11 SS Wed 27

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date July 27 th



Last lessons Objectives




Platyhelminthes, to Annelida

Today’s Objectives Comparing Arthropoda to Echinodermata  

Number One

Why are Arthropoda so successful

·      http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article//arthropods_intro_05

·      http://www.biology-questions-and-answers.com/why-are-arthropods-the-most-successful-animal-group-on-the-planet.html

·      https://msu.edu/course/isb/202/whalon/pdf/lecture15.pdf

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQb7Xq0enTI




Number Two

Echinodermata and links to Chordata


·      http://www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/diversity/labguide/echinchor.html

·      https://quizlet.com/71069963/ch-33-echinoderms-and-chordates-flash-cards/

·      http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/phyla/deuterostomia.html




Three Arthropoda verses Echinodermata

Lets start to compare.

·      https://www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/lc/organ/4/lco4_5a.html

·      https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/BIOL110F2013/Animals+IV+-+Arthropods,+Echinoderms

·      https://msu.edu/course/isb/202/whalon/pdf/lecture15.pdf



DNA, Taxonomy and Evolution

Debrief and new topic Getting closer to exam. Try and study prior to weekend.

Use quizlet to work on vocab.

Text Book


Class Notes

Gunner Notes Imagine that you have to compare and contrast information instead of memorizing.

Think about practical problems.

If you really want to test you knowledge go here..

·      http://spmoodle23.aisgz.org/mod/folder/view.php?id=44534

·      http://www.thinkib.net/biology/page/17996/multiple-choice-questions

·      http://mcq.bostes.nsw.edu.au/course/higher-school-certificate/biology/




You tube Reference ·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z1H2r5CoHGI

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9_S-dASjQ-w&list=PL8PzguM5r5jE3QSssXpqZhciPWVmFCkYg

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2An7rV8JSIA


Today’s flow pattern Reasons for Arthropoda success

Exoskeleton ( diversity of structure and function)

Respiration and metabolism


Metamorphosis verse molting

Diversity of habitat

Take Home Message Bizzare courtship behavior





Odd Arthropoda


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Chordata Gap Notes

Biology 11

Name: ____________________ Date: __________ Block: _____


Phylum Chordata


Human beings belong to a group of animals that all have backbones or ____________. This group is called the ____________, and is a “subphylum” of the phylum _________.



Classification of Chordates

There are 3 subphyla in phylum Chordata

  1. ____________________ (uro = “__________”)
  2. ____________________ (cephalo = “__________”)
  3. ____________________ (vertes = “__________”)


The first two phyla of invertebrate chordates represent an evolutionary transition between ______________ and ______________



Four Characteristics of Chordates:

All animals in Phylum Chordata have these 4 characteristics at some point in their lives:


  1. Most chordates have a ________________
    • the backbone evolved from the _______________ – a stiff flexible rod made of cartilage that runs along the back
    • ALL chordates have a notochord at some point during their development
    • in _______________ the notochord becomes the ________________
    • benefits of a notochord/backbone: muscles can attach to the notochord, allowing chordates to


  1. All chordates have a ____________________
    • the nerve cord runs parallel to the _______________
    • in vertebrates this is surrounded and protected by the __________ (segments of the backbone)
    • at the ___________ end it is enlarged to form the __________


  1. Chordates have _____________ gills
    • (pharynx = “____________”)
    • aka: ________________ (branchial = “_______”)
    • gills are used for _______________ and ______________
    • gills are supported by _____________ made of _______________
    • in embryos, gills start out as pouches in the pharynx. All ____________ have pharyngeal gill pouches at some point during their development
    • in chordates that breath water, the gill pouches become _____________ supported by__________
    • in chordates that breath air (for example _______________), the gill pouches develop into organs such as __________, and the gill arches become structures such as _______________ and ________________ (voicebox)


  1. All chordates have a ____________________
    • the _____________________________ extend into the tail, which allows the tail to be used for ____________
    • found at some point during development in all _____________



Evolutionary Origins of Chordates:


The invertebrate phylum most closely related to the chordates is _________________

  • Both phyla belong to a group of animals called __________________ (deutero = “_____________” and stome = “___________”)
  • All other invertebrates belong to a group called __________________   (proto = “_____________”)
  • The feature that Chordates and Echinoderms share is how and when their ______________ forms during embryonic development______ __________________________________


_________ forms first

                      Protostomes                      Deuterostomes

_________ forms first


















The 2 Invertebrate Chordate Phyla


  1. Characteristics of Urochordatata (sea squirts or tunicates)
  • lifestyle: ________________________________________
  • covered by a “tunic” (tunic = “__________”)
  • has a _____________ but no ________________
  • larva has ____________________________
  • only chordate characteristic in the adult is _____________________


















  1. Characteristics of Cephalochordata (lancelets)
  • lifestyle: _______________________________
  • retain all 4 chordate characteristics throughout life












  1. Characteristics of Vertebrata (animals with backbones)
  • in all vertebrates (except the hagfish) the notochord is replaced with a backbone made of ________________ ( = ___________________________________)
  • the ___________________ is surrounded and protected by the __________
  • Vertebrates also have:
    • a complex ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_______________ and a large _______________ protected by a ________________
    • an endoskeleton with ________________ and one or two pairs of ________________
    • complex ________________
    • special ________________ (eg: skin, scales)



Vertebrate Classes

There are 7 ____________ of vertebrates

  1. Agnatha – ______________________
  2. Chondrichthyes – ______________________ (sharks)
  3. Osteichthyes – ____________________
  4. Amphibia – _____________________
  5. Reptilia – __________________
  6. Aves – ______________
  7. Mammalia – ___________________




posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Chordata and have No Comments

Mr C’s Animal Review Sheet

Very valuable Animal Notes


Basic Structure of an animal

The basic difference between an animal and a plant is that instead of being an autotroph they are heterotrophs. An animal can best be described as “ a multicellular, heterotrophic, and usually motile organism”. The difference between unicellular and multicellular animals is that multicellular organism have tissues which allow for the division of labour done by cells.



Basically, any animal (multicellular) without a backbone is an invertebrate. Invertebrates can live in aquatic, terrestrial and parasitic environments. They may range in size from the microscopic to mammoth squid.


  • And now a word from our sponsor… ( boy these would be great short answer questions…


Some benefits of inverterbrates…(five)

  • They provide habitat for other animals
  • Habit allows food for other animals to eat
  • Worms dig up and turn over soil, allowing plants to grow
  • Many mollusks are food…even snails..yum!
  • Insects pollenate plants



Many invertebrates can cause disease (five)

  • Trichinella causes infection due to eating uncooked meat
  • Tape worms infect domestic and undomestic species
  • Insects and mollusk can be vectors for parasitic worms


  • Insects and cnidarian can sting…if you get in their space
  • And octupi and squids can bite!


Germ Layers

Importance of having three germ layers, is that each layer allows for cell specialization. With the formation oftissues, these germ layers can specialize to preform specific tasks. As the organism evolve, one notes an increase in functions of each germ layer.


For example

  • Ecoderm tissue can diversify to form structural support, defensive stinging cells, specialized hooks or become dense cutticle to limit being digested.


  • Mesoderm tissue can diversity to form muscle tissue and reproductive tissue


  • Endoderm tissue can diversify to form digestive tissue



Symetry and life style

Animals that tend to stay in one place will show no symetry (such as coral) or radial symetry such as sea anemome. Since these organisms live in one spot, they depend upon the flow of water to both provide food and distribute gametes. With the advent of movement, animals will shift to bilateral symetry. This means that they can hunt for food and muscles will be innervated by a nerve tissue.


Development of systems

Linked to coelom

The basic distinction of an animal is to eat, so tissues will be developed to eat food. If you have a simple surface area to volume ratio, there is no need to create systems for digestion. For example tape worms can absorb food across a simple single cell layer. Acoelomates tend to show simple strategies for digestion, such as filter feeding, or parasitic absorption. The planarian does have a simple gut that also doubles to move food in and out of the body. With the increase in locomotion there is a need for more food. The formation of a full digestive tract, such as pseudocoelomate nematod worms, allows for food to go in and out of the body by two pores. In addition, muscle movement within the body can work independently of external muscle. Please check previous notes for more facts about the coelom. With more food there is more waste, so there is development of excretory system.


Filter feeding

Specialized cells to create current (collar cells)

Specialised cells to form pores

Less energy used to find food


Internal and external digestion


Simple guts to tubular guts

Digestive enzymes to rapidly disolve food prior to being absorbed by






Hooks and suckers



No need for digestive system





Sample : Sponges

These are asymetric, filter feeding critters that almost look like rocks! In fact the ones at the aquarium are! These animals have three layers, although they are made from two germ layers. So sponges do have distinct cell types. The middle layer is made of spicules which form a skeletal system that protects and shapes the organism. The spicules are made of calcium carbonate which is hard enough to make…rock..or fossils. Water is filter in through pore by collar cells. These cells use flagella to produce water current and gametes. Sponges reproduce asexually by budding. Since these animals are sedentary they depend upon the flow of ocean currents for food. Though this may be hazardous if the water is not pure, they do not have to expend a lot of energy to get food.



Sample: Hydra, Jelly fish, Sea Anenome

These animals are radial in symetry. They eat by stinging their prey with nematocyst which in the case of the hydra can paralyze the prey. The interesting thing is that these same tentacles can also be used for fertilization, as in the jelly fish. Cnidarian some times have moving and sendentary stages. They usually have tentacles souronding a mouth. Organism such as the jelly fish can have both sexual and asexual forms.



Sample: Planaria , Flukes and tapeworms

Flat worms can either be free living or parasitic. They show bilateral symetry and unique loss or gain of systems. Free living species show nerve tissue development with anterior ganglia and nerve cords. Planaria have both eyespots and sensory lobes. In comparison, parasitic form tend to show anterior specialization to adhere to the host, such as suckers or hooks. Free swimming Planaria show unique regenerative properties. Parasitic species such at tapeworms no longer need digestive tissue due to the environment they live in. However, to insure survival, they have mass producing proglottids. These segments have both male and female tissue to increase the rate and amount of eggs. Proglottids develop along the length of tape worm, with the mature ones being at the posterior end (which contain many eggs) and the immature ones being close to the scolex. Another type of parasitic worm are flukes such as the liver fluke. This parasite has a life cycle that start within the host stomach, moves to the intestines, then the liver and then the gall bladder…so the parasite not only moves around outside the host, it also moves within the host!


Round worms.

Samples: nematoda, hookworm, filarian worm,ascaris and trichinella

We now enter the world of psuedocoelomates. Round worms can be free living or parasitic. They have complete digestive tracts with a mouth and an anus. Parasitic worms can specialize ectoderm tissue to form cutticle which prevents them from being digested. One of the most graphic round worm infections is elephantiasis, which is due to filarian worms. This parasite is associated with lymph vessel blockage which causes the body to swell to…elephant proportions! The medical staff and worm symbol can be traced back to how this worm was once extracted from the skin by wrapping it around a stick. Life cycle of ascaris enters the body via the gut but eventually works its way to the lungs, via the blood to the liver to the heart. Each time the host coughs they reinfect themselves. To infect other hosts the eggs are excreted by adult worms in the gut. If the eggs and the adult are remain in one host, the spreading of the parasite is limited.


Some Vocabulary

Term Definition or example
Collar cells
Flame cells






Now using the text and notes, try and answer the following


Big ideas in biology


  • What are some examples of animal interactions?
  • How are coral and sea anenome associated with marine ecology?
  • How is symetry related to lifestyle?
  • What are some advantages of living in a marine environment?
  • What are five ways inverterbrates are helpful to humans?
  • What are five ways invertebrates are harmful?
  • What is a parasitic life cycle and how can it change?


Changes with time

  • What changes in structure occur as animals switch from marine to land?
  • How do sedentary animals such as coral and hydra deal with reproduction?
  • How would adapting to a parasitic lifestyle be advantageous?


Structure and function

  • What unique structures do parasitic tape worms have? ( 3 )

What are the unique structures for:


  • Sea anemome
  • Hydra
  • Planaria
  • Parasitic flukes and flatworms
  • Nematoda worms







And now for a great short answer question…and final study tips


Now if you found a critter on the beach…how would you classify them? How could you decide what group of organisms you critter belonged to?How does your critter move?

What unique structures does it show?

How does it respond to a stimuli?

What structures does it show that may show if it is a predator or prey?

Does it have protective layers or structures?

How do you suppose it maintains water balance?

What sort of digestive system does it have?

Does it have massive gonads…no it is not a bull dog!

So from these facts…

What is your mystery critter…

See it pays to learn the general properties of …

  • A coral
  • A cnidarian
  • A free swimming platyhelminthes
  • A parasitic worm



Study tricks…Importance of the number three


Three germ layers





Three developments of coelom





Three advantages of a coelom


Three pattern of feeding


Free living, with external digestion



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Intro to inverts and have No Comments

Echinodermata Gap Notes

Biology 11

Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Phylum Echinodermata

(Greek: echinos = “spiny”, derma = “skin”)

Pages 340-341


I Background:

  • The Phylum Echinodermata includes 6 Subphyla that include a total of 18 Classes. Some of these Subphyla and Classes include:
    • Subphylum: _______________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _______________– Brittle Stars
      • Class: _______________ – Sea Stars and Starfish
    • Subphylum: _______________ (Includes 2 Classes)
  • Class: _______________ – Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars
  • Class: _______________ – Sea Cucumbers
  • Echinoderms are completely _______________ and only live on the ocean floor


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The development of Echinoderms after the egg stage is so similar to that of the Chordata, as well as being unique to only those two Phyla that it is believed that the Chordates (Vertebrates) and the Echinoderms share a common ancestor!!!


II Body Plan/Structure:

  • Echinoderms have _______________symmetry, but it is believed that they evolved from a bilaterally symmetrical ancestor
  • Most members of the Phyla are _______________ with _______________similar body segments arrayed around a central core
  • Echinoderms contain the three true germ layers:
    • ________________________________
    • ________________________________
    • ________________________________


  • Defining Characteristics of Echinoderms
  1. All Echinoderms have an _______________ made of _______________, covered with a layer of _______________
  2. Echinoderms possess a _______________
    • This is a system of fluid-filled _______________ that acts like a hydraulic pressure system
    • The system is used for _______________, _______________ and _______________
    • Water is drawn into the water vascular system through a structure called a _______________.
    • The water travels down a structure called a _______________ until it reaches the circular _______________ that encircles the central core
    • The water is passed down to each _______________ through the _______________ where it enters the _______________ (Small bulbs)
    • The _______________ are connected to little sucker-like feet called _______________. The _______________and the _______________ are called _______________


III. Feeding:

  • Most echinoderms have a very _______________ digestive system
  • There is a _______________ that is connected to a _______________ that is connected to an _______________
  • The stomach extends into each arm where digestive juices are released to digest the food
  • undigestible food is released out the anus


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Sea Stars can be deadly carnivores. They will mount their prey

(usually an unsuspecting Bivalve) and wrap their arms around it until the opening of the Bivalve is facing the mouth of the Sea Star. From here the Sea Star pulls the Bivalve open using its sticky tube feet and powerful arms. It then everts its stomach into the Bivalve and digests the Bivalve inside its own protective shell. The Sea Star then pulls its stomach back inside to digest the organic material!!!


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Sea Urchins scrape food off of hard surfaces using a special structure called Aristotle’s Lantern. Who knows, if you study hard and become a famous Philosopher and Biologist you could name an anatomical structure after yourself too!!!

  1. Respiration:
  • The thin-walled _______________allow for simple _______________ to occur
  • Some Echinoderms contain special _______________on their epidermis that aid in respiration


  1. Internal Transport:
  • The Water Vascular System is responsible for transporting _______________, _______________ and _______________ throughout the body


  1. Excretion:
  • The Water Vascular System is used to release metabolic wastes into the surroundings. The wastes are released from the _______________


VII. Response:

  • In general Echinoderms have a very _______________ nervous system
  • They have a central _______________ that surrounds the stomach. The central nerve ring connects to _______________ that extend into and control each arm
  • They can generally only respond to:
    • _______________ – Using special structures found on the epidermis
    • _______________– Some have very very simple _______________ on the tips of their arms


VIII. Movement:

  • Echinoderms are either _______________ or very slow moving
  • They crawl using the Water Vascular System to pump water in and out of their _______________


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The ferocious Sunflower Star is by far the fastest moving Echinoderm and can move at speeds up to 1 meter per minute!!!


  1. Reproduction:
  • The Echinoderms have separate _______________ and _______________ organisms
  • The _______________ of most Echinoderms take up the entire coelom
  • The _______________ and _______________ are simply released into the water by both sexes
  • Once the egg has been fertilized it matures into a _______________symmetrical larvae which eventually matures into the adult

Echinoderms also have the ability to _______________ body parts after they have been damaged or removed

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Arthropoda Gap Notes

Biology 11


Name: _______________ ____________________ Date: ________________ Block: _________



Phylum Arthropoda (Greek: arthros = “joint”, podos = “foot”)

Pages 334-338


I Background:


  • The Phylum Arthropoda includes 5 Subphyla that include a total of 19 Classes. Some of these Subphyla and Classes include:
    • Subphylum: _______________________________ (Includes 1 Class)
      • Class: _________________________ – Includes only Trilobites, which are extinct today
    • Subphylum: ________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _______________________ – Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks, Mites etc.
      • Class:____________________________________ – Horseshoe crabs
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: _________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _____________________________ – Centipedes
      • Class: _____________________________ – Millipedes
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: ________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _______________________________ – Insects
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: ______________________________________ (Includes 6 Classes)
      • Class: ____________________________________ – Lobsters, Crabs, Shrimp, Crayfish etc.
      • Class: ____________________________________ – Barnacles etc.
      • Etc.


II Body Plan/Structure:


  • Arthropods demonstrate a _______________________________ symmetrical body plan
  • They have the three true germ layers:
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
  • One of the defining characteristics of all Arthropods is the division of the body into three body segments:
    • The _______________ – Contains _________________________ organs and ___________________ parts (Can have pinchers)
    • The _______________________ – Contains the walking ___________ and _______________ if present
    • The ______________________ – Contains the ______________________ organs, can contain _______________________________ in Crustaceans and can also contain the ______________________________ in Arachnids


Note: The head and thorax of some Arthropods have fused to become a ________________________________ such as the Arachnids


  • Arthropods have an _____________________________ made out of _______________. The exoskeleton is used for ______________________ and to prevent _________________________(drying out)
  • In order to grow Arthropods have to undergo ___________________ in which a larger, soft exoskeleton grows under the old one. As the internal exoskeleton grows it cracks the old exoskeleton open and the Arthropod wriggles out of it, a little bigger
  • Arthropods have ______________ appendages. These appendages have evolved to be used for :
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________, Etc.
  • Arthropods have an _________________ circulatory system that is comprised of many open spaces that make up the ________________________.
  • The ________________________ is filled with __________________________ which acts as blood for Arthropods
  • The blood is pumped throughout the tissues by a series of ______________ that extend along the ____________________ side of the entire body


DID YOU KNOW!!!: At least half of the described species of living animals are Arthropods

(mostly insects), but arthropods are less common as fossils. The most familiar group of fossil Arthropods is undoubtedly the trilobites!!!






III. Feeding:


  • The mouth of Arthropods is found in the head region
  • It is often comprised of two or more paired appendages (modified segments) used for biting, cutting and holding food
  • Examples of some of these mouth parts are _____________________ in the Class Insecta or ________________________ in the Arachnida
  • Due to the incredible diversity of the Arthropods there are many different types of feeders ranging from Herbivores to Carnivores.


  1. Respiration:


  • There are three major forms of respiratory systems found among the Arthropoda:
    • __________________: Aquatic Arthropods such as the Class Crustacea contain Gills as they need to respire under water
    • _____________________________: Book lungs can be found in the Class Arachnida.       They are comprised of stacks of alternating _________ sacs and _______________________ filled tissues. This resembles a closed book. They are connected to the outside world by small openings.
    • A _________________________________: Terrestrial Arthropods such as the Class Insecta have a tracheal system consisting of ________________________ and ___________________. The _______________________ are small openings in the exoskeleton that can be opened and closed to allow gas exchange. Once oxygen has entered the _______________________ it travels along the many ______________________ to all of the body tissues. Only in some Arthropods does the hemocyanin function to transport the oxygen to all of the tissues


  1. Internal Transport:


  • Arthropods have an _________________________________________
  • They have a large internal cavity called a _____________________ that is filled with ________________________ (Arthropod blood)
  • There are a series of ________________ that run along the ______________ side of most Arthropods
  • The hearts pump the ________________________ from the abdomen to the head through the Arthropod’s only blood vessel called the ______________
  • Once the __________________________ enters the _______________ it leaves the _______________ and simply fills the spaces between the tissues.
  • It then flows back to the __________________organs at the posterior end of the body where it washes over the organs in order to transport ______________________ to all of the Arthropod’s tissues
  • Once the hemocyanin reaches the hearts it is pumped forward again


  1. Excretion:


  • Undigested food is passed out of the ______________ which is located at the end of the _________________________
  • Insects (and some other Arthropods) have special organs called ______________________________________ located around the stomach
  • These _________________________________ are threadlike structures that collect metabolic wastes from the hemocyanin that is washing over the organs
  • The metabolic wastes are transported into the _________________________ where they mix with undigested food
  • The wastes are released from the ________________


VII. Response:


  • The Arthropods contain a fairly large ______________ in their head
  • The brain controls the rest of the body by sending signals down a large ____________________________________
  • Arthropods have many specialized segments used for sensing an responding to their surroundings
  • The most easily recognized features are their ____________________ and their __________________________________
  • The _______________________:
    • The antennae are used to sense and respond to __________________
  • The _________________:
    • Insects and Crustaceans have incredibly advanced eyes
    • Their eyes are unlike human eyes because they ___________________________
    • Unlike our human eyes the Insect eyes are made up of thousands of individual units that each provide a __________ of light to the brain
    • The brain then interprets the array of light as a __________________ image
    • The eyes cannot focus so the image is usually course and the eyes are mostly used to detect __________________________
  • Arthropods can also sense and respond to:
    • ______________________________: The ____________________ and ___________________ parts of some Arthropods are able to detect differences in chemicals and allow them to Taste and Smell such as the Crustaceans
    • ______________________: Some Arthropods contain special structures called _______________________ at the base of their antennae that allow them to balance such as the Crustaceans and the Insects
    • ______________________: Some Arthropods have actually evolved structures called a ________________________. This is a membrane found on either side of the abdomen and that detect sound vibrations.


VIII. Movement:


  • Arthropods are incredibly _____________________
  • Due to the rigid ______________________Arthropods must have _________________ in order to move.       This is how they have received their name Arthropoda, “Jointed Feet”
  • Most Arthropods contain many more ____________________ than humans that help them perform all of their intricate movements
  • There are many forms of movement seen in the Arthropods ranging from the segmental movement seen in Millipedes to the ability to fly seen in some of the Insects and to the ability to swim seen in some Crustaceans


  1. Reproduction:


  • Arthropods contain both _________________ and are not _________________________
  • In Insects the male fertilizes the female by releasing sperm into the female’s sperm ____________________________.
  • The egg is released from the female out of the body through an _______________________ near the anus
  • Most Insects undergo ________________________ and go through ___________ distinct stages
    • The _______________: Released from the ovipositor
    • The ________________: Many Arthropods contain a larval stage that doesn’t resemble the adult form at all. Many of us recognize this stage as grubs, caterpillars or maggots (the larva of flys)
    • The __________________: The pupa is a nonfeeding stage following the larval stage. An example is the cocoon
    • The __________________


  1. Ecological Roles:






posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Molluscs Notes


(phylum mollusca)


– many of our ideas of sea monsters come from molluscs.

– also provide many types of food – think of all the molluscs that we eat.


















mantle cavity






– most have soft bodies protected by a hard shell

– The coelom is mainly present around the heart

– most have a radula = rasping tongue



has 3 distinct parts


– muscular, used for locomotion

– in cephalopods modified into tentacles


– contains digestive organs, excretory organs, and the heart


= fleshy outer layer covering visceral mass

– has mucous glands and nerve endings

– secretes the shell


– lies between the mantle and the visceral mass

– contains organs that function in gas exchange between blood and

– water (gills)

– air (lung)






1) gastropods (stomach-foots)


= snails, slugs, sea snails, sea slugs


– most numerous = 5/6 of molluscs

– flat foot

– shell is one piece, coiled, or absent

– head has tentacles and eyes on stalks

– have a radula



2) bivalves (two-shells)


= clams, mussels, and oysters


– have two shells

– right and left shells hinged dorsally

– no head, tentacles or radula

– adapted to live in mud

– feed by filtering particles from water



3) cephalopods



= squids, octopus

– no shells or else a small internal shell

– large head and well-developed eyes

– active predators

– foot modified into crown of 8 – 10 tentacles with suckers around mouth

– foot used in locomotion

– expel water from mantle cavity (jet propulsion).

– mouth has a horny beak and a radula

– some squids are largest invertebrates

– squirt inky substance in defense



4) chitons


– have a radula (rasping tongue)

– eight articulating plates, or valves



5) nautilus – “living fossils,” thought extinct for millions of years, found again in 1952



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

comparing parasitic worms

Comparing Parasitic Worms


  Tapeworm Liver Fluke Ascaris Trichinella
Phylum Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes Nematoda Nematoda
Class Cestoda Trematoda    
How is this worm adapted to a parasitic lifestyle? 1.     Scolex with hooks for attaching to intestines of host

2.    No mouth or digestive system – long flat body absorbs nutrients directly from host

3.    Sensory receptors reduced or absent

4.    Tegument (modified epidermis) protects against hosts digestive enzymes and immune system

5.    Cuticle secreted by the epidermis also protects the worm

6.    Hermaphroditic with well developed reproductive system capable of mating with each other and producing hundreds of thousands of eggs (no digestive system makes more room for eggs)

7.    Proglottids capable of mating with each other, drop off when eggs ripe to infect intermediary host

8.    Embryos form a bladder or cyst in intermediary host and wait to be eaten by primary host

1.     Oral sucker for attaching to host

2.    tegument ot protect against hosts’s digestive juices and immune system

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body

1.     Female lays 200,000 eggs per day which pass out with feces

2.    When new host eats contaminated food new infection occurs

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body

1.     Larvae form cysts in muscle tissue

2.    When muscle eaten by predator, larvae are released into stomach to begin life cycle

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

Annelida Gap Notes

Biology 11


Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____


Phylum Annelida: Segmented Worms

(Latin: anellus = “little ring”)

Pages 323-327


  1. Background:


  • 2 Major Classes: (Actually 4 classes)
    1. Class _______________: (Means “Many Bristles”)
    2. Class _______________:
      • Subclass _______________: (Means “Few Bristles”) The Earthworms
      • Subclass _______________: The Leeches


  • ~15000 known species
  • The Annelids live in many diverse environments including freshwater, marine and terrestrial


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The giant Australian Earthworm can grow to be up to 3 meters in length



  1. Body Plan/Structure of the Earthworm


  • _______________ symmetrical body plan
  • Three true germ layers:
    • _______________
    • _______________
    • _______________
  • A true _______________ with a _______________ and _______________connected by intestines
  • A large _______________ on the _______________ side of the their anterior end which acts as a primitive brain
  • The _______________ are connected to a _______________ which runs down the _______________ side of the body
  • A true _______________ that is lined with _______________
  • Both _______________ and _______________muscles
  • A _______________.       Their circulatory system is made up of two _______________ which run along the length of the body on the ____________ and _______________ sides. There are also a series of “_______________” called the _______________ which pump the blood through the circulatory system.
  • Annelids are _______________ and contain both male and female reproductive organs.
  • These organs are found just anterior to a special structure called a ___________ which is a swollen segment near the _______________ end of their body.
  • Annelids have true _______________
    • Each segment of the Annelid worms contains similar structures to the next segment
    • Each segment is separated from the next by a __________ (plural = septa).
    • Annelid worms contain little bristles on their exterior called ____________ which aid in locomotion.
    • Each segment of an Annelid contains a pair of _______________ which are used for excretion


III. Feeding:


    • Most Earthworms are _______________ which means that they eat decomposing organic matter (detritus)
    • As Earthworms travel through the dirt they suck the dirt into their mouth using their muscular _______________
    • The Earthworm sends the dirt through the _______________ and into the _______________ by muscle contractions
    • The dirt is stored in the _______________ until the worm is ready for digestion
    • Using muscle contractions the dirt moves into the _______________ which acts much like a _______________
    • The _______________ mechanically digests the dirt and organic material by mixing it. The sand in the dirt aids to grind the organic material into small pieces
    • The organic material and dirt continues along the _______________ by muscle contractions
    • As it travels through the intestines the organic material is absorbed into the _______________ in the _______________and _______________ blood vessels
    • The remaining inorganic dirt travels through the _______________ to the _______________





  1. Respiration:


  • _______________ enters directly through the _______________ by the process of _______________
  • The oxygen enters the blood and is transported to all the body cells of the Earthworm
  • _______________exits the circulatory system directly through the ectoderm and into the Earthworm’s surroundings by the process of _______________


  1. Internal Transport:


  • All Annelids have _______________ circulatory systems which contains _______________ with _______________
  • The haemoglobin in the blood transports _______________ throughout the Annelid and gives the blood its red colour
  • The circulatory system of Annelids is made up of the _______________which are a series of muscular “_______________”, and a pair of blood vessels which run along the _______________ and _______________sides of the worm
  • The _______________ pump the blood through the _______________ blood vessel and collect blood from the _______________ blood vessel



  1. Excretion:


  • Each segment of an Annelid contains a pair of _______________ which are used for excretion
    • Wastes are excreted by the body cells into the _______________ cavity
    • The _______________ collect the waste material from the _______________cavity and transport it out of the earthworm



VII. Response:


  • Most of the Earthworm’s sensory organs are found in the _______________ end
  • The _______________ interpret sensory information and send the information along the ventral _______________ to the segments
  • As the nerve cords enter each segment they bulge to form individual _______________in each segment which allows each individual segment to respond quickly




VIII. Reproduction:


  • Asexual reproduction:
    • Annelid worms can undergo the process of _______________ to produce two genetically identical worms
    • Annelids can also _______________ after they have been cut


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Earthworms can be cut up to 1/13 their size and still regenerate!!!


  • Sexual Reproduction:
    • Earthworms are _______________
    • Two earthworms line up _______________ to _______________ so their _______________ and _______________ line up (male to female)
    • The _______________ produce a slime tube that surrounds both worms
    • _______________ is transferred from each partner to the other
    • The worms wriggle out of the slime tube releasing the _______________
    • The sperm fertilize the eggs within the worm “_______________
    • The eggs mature directly into the adult Earthworms which emerge from the “cocoon”



  1. Movement:


  • Earthworms move by a process known as _______________: alternately contracting and relaxing       muscles


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Human beings also perform peristalsis, however, we use the process to swallow our food. Try eating or drinking upside down one time and see what happens!!!



  1. Ecological Roles:


  • Annelids play incredible ecological roles
  • Earthworms are very important to agriculture. As they burrow through the soil they help to aerate it allowing the roots of plants to gain much needed space and oxygen. The castings they leave behind also help to fertilize the soil
  • Some countries around the world use a leeches. In Medieval times leeches were used to suck people’s blood in hopes of balancing their “Humours”. In modern medicine the chemical that leeches secrete during feeding called hirudin is used to prevent blood coagulation in certain operations such as plastic surgery or to stimulate circulation in reattachment surgeries.


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Nematoda Gap Notes

Biology 11


Name: __________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Nematoda Anatomy










Biology 11

Mr. Carmichael

Name: ___________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms

(Greek: nema = “thread”)

Pages 314-317


  1. Background:


  • 2 Major Classes:
    1. _______________________________
    2. _______________________________
  • ~ 80000 species known


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Nematodes are the most abundant multicellular lifeforms on earth!!!


  • The Nematodes have evolved to live in every habitat on the planet from marine to fresh water, the polar regions to the tropics and from the highest elevations to the lowest.
  • Nematodes can be _____________________ or _______________________


  1. Body Plan/Structure:
  • Nematodes demonstrate a ________________________ symmetrical body plan
  • They have a _________________and _______________________ body
  • They lack a ______________________
  • They have three germ layers:
    1. ______________________
    2. ______________________
    3. ______________________
  • Nematodes are the fist phylum we will look at that has a _________________ ____________________________ with a _________________ and an _____________ connected by __________________________
  • The mouth is connected to the intestines by a muscular ___________________
  • Nematodes are ___________________________ which means that they have an internal body cavity but this cavity is not lined with _______________________
  • They do have muscles but only ___________________________ ones
  • They have ____________________ in their __________________ end which is connected to two __________________________ that run down the length of the body on the ________________ and ____________________ sides
  • Nematodes secrete a thick _______________________ that surrounds the body and protects them from their surroundings


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Nematodes are born with the same number of cells that they will have for their entire life. This means that as Nematodes grow they do not get new cells; instead their cells just get larger!!!


III. Feeding:

  • The free-living Nematodes usually eat bacteria, fungi, protozoans along with other detritus (decomposing material)
  • Parasitic Nematodes live off of their host organism
  • Food is ingested through the mouth by muscular contractions of the ___________
  • The food is digested in the ________________________
  • Undigested food is passed out of the _______________


  1. Respiration:
  • Respiration occurs by simple _____________________ where oxygen is taken up by the body cells from the surroundings and carbon dioxide is released from the body cells into the surroundings


  1. Internal Transport:
  • The Nematodes lack a true _______________________________; However, nutrients diffuse from the intestines into the __________________________ where they circulate throughout the body


  1. Excretion:
  • Wastes and undigested nutrients are released out of the _____________.
  • They also have _____________________________________ on either side of their body which release wastes into the surroundings from the pseudocoelom



VII. Response:

  • Nematodes can have the ability to sense and respond to three stimuli:
    1. Sense and respond to ________________
    2. Sense and respond to ______________________
    3. Sense and respond to _________________


VIII. Movement:

  • Since Nematodes lack _______________________ muscles and only have ______________________ muscles they can only slash around from side to side


  1. Reproduction:


  • Sexual reproduction (free-living):
    • Most Nematodes are either ________________ or _______________ (though some are hermaphroditic)
    • When a female and a (much smaller) male Nematode meet, the male will wrap his ________________ around the female
    • One or more ______________ will move out of his anus and will be inserted into the females __________________ and sperm will be transferred
    • The fertilized eggs are released by the female into the surroundings


  1. Ecological Roles:

Parasitic Nematodes:

Like the Platyhelminthes there are many forms of Nematodes that are parasitic. They Are mostly parasitic on vertebrates and can cause serious illness. They also have very complicated lifecycles:


Eg. Trichenella spiralis (causes Trichinosis)

  • These Nematodes only need one host to mature but can be passed from host to host
  • The adult Nematodes live in the _______________ of their host (pig/rat/human)
  • When they undergo sexual reproduction the larva burrow into the muscles of their host and create a capsule around themselves called an _______________
  • After maturing the larvae travel back to the intestine to begin the lifecycle again


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Most Humans get Trichinosis from eating undercooked pork which

contains the larvae filled encysts!!!


Biology 11

Mr. Carmichael

Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Parasitic Nematoda Life Cycle

eg: Trichenella spiralis




posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Platyhelminthes Gap Notes


Biology 11


Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Platyhelminthes Anatomy

eg: Class Turbellaria, Family Planaria


Biology 11

Ms. L. Jamieson

Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____


Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

(Greek: platy = “flat”, helminth = “worm”)

Pages 311-317


  1. Background:


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The longest tapeworm ever to be extracted from a human was 37 feet long and was pulled out of a woman’s mouth!!! In whales they can grow up to 120 feet in length!!!


  1. A) Free-Living Platyhelminthes:

(Class Turbellaria)


  1. Body Plan/Structure:
  • Flatworms demonstrate a _______________________ symmetrical body plan
  • They are ____________________ flattened and lack a __________________
  • They have a highly branched _______________________________________. It is considered a ______________ gut because there is only one opening to it which serves the function of both the ______________ and ______________
  • They have three germ layers:
    1. ______________________: Outside
    2. ______________________: Inside
    3. ______________________: Middle layer of tissue between the ectoderm and the endoderm
  • Though Flatworms have three germ layers they are _______________________ and have no body cavity
  • Flatworms do have ___________________ and primitive __________________ that are used for __________________ and ___________________
  • Flatworms are also the most primitive organisms to show ___________________
  • The head region of Flatworms contains a concentration of __________________ called ___________________ (singular=_____________________) that resembles a primitive brain.
  • They have two __________________ that run from the __________________ in the head region along the ___________________ side of the worm to the tail.
  • In the head region of Flatworms are two ______________________________
  • They also have lobes on the side of their head called _____________________


III. Feeding:

  • The free-living forms of Flatworms are ______________and ______________
  • Flatworms have a ___________________ which is connected to the __________________ through a long       muscular ________________________
  • Small invertebrates or the remains of dead animals are taken into the mouth/anus by the muscular ____________________
  • The food is then digested in the highly branched ________________________
  • The nutrients moves from the gut into the body cells by __________________


  1. Respiration:
  • Respiration occurs by ___________________
  • ______________is taken up directly by the ________________ from the water or the gut
  • ______________________ is released directly from the _________________ into the water or the gut


  1. Internal Transport:
  • __________________ and ___________________ in the gut are simply absorbed into the body cells by the process of _____________________






  1. Excretion:
  • Most undigested food is released directly out of the _____________________
  • Other waste materials diffuse from the body cells into the _________________ and exit out of the ____________________
  • Other undigested food is released out of tiny ____________________ that open to the water


VII. Response:

  • Flatworms are able to sense and respond to at least three forms of stimuli:
    1. Sense and respond to __________________: The __________________ can detect light and allow the Flatworms to respond to it
    2. Sense and respond to ____________________: ____________ on the side of their head regions can sense ___________________ in the water and allow the Flatworms to respond (like “smelling”)
    3. Sense and respond to ________________: The ____________________ on either side of the head region can sense _______________ and allow the Flatworms to respond
  • The _____________________ in the head region relay messages from the sensory organs down the _______________________ to the rest of the body. The _______________________ can control _______________________ in the body which allow the Flatworms to ______________ or ________________.


DID YOU KOW!!!: Even though Flatworms only have primitive brains they are capable of



VIII. Reproduction:

  • Asexual Reproduction:
    • Flatworms can asexually reproduce through a process called ____________.       The ________________ and ________________ ends hold a surface and the midsection constricts. This results in two new flatworms, one from the _________________ end of the original flatworm and the other from the ____________________ end of the original flatworm.
    • Flatworms can also ________________________ parts they have lost.




DID YOU KNOW!!!: If you cut a small piece off the tip of a flatworm’s head region and left the wound open it will regenerate a new head in front of the old one. You can repeat the process to create a flatworm with many heads. If we were Greek we could call it a Polycephaloturbellarian!!!


  • Sexual Reproduction:
    • Flatworms are _________________________
    • After two flatworms have copulated they release sacs of fertilized __________ and attach them to a surface


DID YOU KNOW!!!: In the animal world it is much easier to be male because you generally

don’t have to take care of your offspring. Because of this some hermaphroditic flatworms demonstrate a sexual behaviour called “Penis Fencing” in which two flatworms will attack each other with their penises. The first one that can jab the other will release their sperm and thus take on the role of a male while the flatworm that has been jabbed will have their eggs fertilized and take on the role of the female!!!


  1. Movement:
  • The flatworms move across a surface using _________ on their _____________ surface
  • They can also move by contracting _______________ and _________________ muscles that lay just below the __________________. These muscles are controlled by the ___________________.


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Some flatworms are so muscular they can swim through the water!!!


  1. Ecological Roles:


  1. ____________________
  2. ____________________
  3. ____________________






Biology 11

Mr. Kalkman

Name: ______________________ Date: __________ Block: _____


Parasitic Platyhelminthes

(Classes Trematoda, Cestoda and Monogenea)


Parasitic Platyhelminthes are quite a bit different than their free-living relatives. Many of these adaptations are related to the fact that they live within host organisms. Most of the final host organisms that parasitic Platyhelminthes use are vertebrates, including HUMANS!!! However, they have intricate lifecycles with intermediate host organisms.


Here is a list of adaptations that make the fluke and the tape worms different than the free-living flatworms.


Class Cestoda (Tapeworms):

  1. The Beef Tapeworm
  • The tapeworm has a _______________ at its anterior end, with complicated hooks for attaching to the intestines of its host.
  • The tapeworm does not have a _______________ or _______________. They are bathed in the pre-digested fluids of their host, and absorb nutrients directly into their cells
  • Since they live in such a harsh environment as the intestines they have a modified ectoderm called a _______________ which protects them from the host’s _______________ and _______________
  • The tapeworm is _______________ and has a body adapted for reproducing.
  • The body of the tapeworm is segmented into _______________, each containing both male and female _______________.
  • As the eggs in the proglottids are fertilized they are released into the human host’s intestines and eventually end up in the host’s _______________.


  • Lifecycle:
    • After the fertilized eggs have been released in the fecal matter of the human host the feces can be used as fertilizer etc.
    • The eggs are ingested by the intermediate host, a cow
    • The eggs mature into larva which burrow into the muscles of the cow
    • The beef is eaten by more humans and the larva mature into tapeworms in the intestine of the human host to start the lifecycle again.





Class Trematoda (Flukes):

  1. Schistosoma


  • The fluke worm has an an _______________ on its anterior end for attaching to the host
  • Fluke worms also have a _______________ to protect them from their host’s _______________ and _______________
  • Flukes are most often _______________ but in the case of Schistosoma there is a male and a female form
  • Other than these adaptations flukes show many of the same characteristics as the free-living turbellarians


  • Lifecycle:
    • The adult fluke worm lives in the blood vessels near the intestine of a human host.
    • When it is ready to lay its eggs it pushes its way into one of the tiny blood vessels of the intestine and lays thousands of eggs
    • The sheer number of eggs causes the blood vessels to burst releasing the eggs into the intestine
    • The eggs are carried out of the human host in their fecal matter
    • In many underdeveloped countries there are no proper sewage system and the fecal matter is used as fertilizer
    • The eggs get into the water systems and mature into ciliated larva
    • The larva swim until they find a snail intermediate host. If they do not find this snail they will die
    • The larva burrow into the tissue of the snail, feed on its tissues and asexually reproduce
    • The new larvae exit the snail and become free-swimming
    • The new free-swimming larvae burrow into the skin of humans who are swimming near them
    • A male larva and female larva will find eachother and move through the human circulatory system until they reach the human liver where they mature and feed on red blood cells
    • The pair of mature trematodes migrate to the intestines where they undergo sexual reproduction
    • The female releases the eggs into the small blood vessels of the intestines to start the cycle again.




Biology 11

  1. Jamieson

Name: _________________________ Date: __________ Block: _____



Human Tapeworm Lifecycle:

Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Cestoda, Taenia saginata





































Biology 11

Ms, Jamieson

Name: ____________________ Date: ___________ Block: _____



Liver Fluke Lifecycle

Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Trematoda, Schistosoma mansoni




posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments