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Acme Guide for Anatomy and Physiology DNA and Enzyme evolution

Acme Guide for Anatomy and Physiology DNA to Enzymes Test


Basics ·      What is the backbone of DNA composed of?

·      What compliment base pairs?

·      What structures in DNA make “genes”?

·      Why are the amounts of Adenine in DNA equal to Thymine?

·      If a gene has 120 base pairs, how many amino acids are in the protein?

·      DNA is called a semiconservative molecule, why?

·      DNA is called a supercoiled molecule, why?

·      Could you compare DNA to RNA using a table to compare structures and function?


Replication ·      Can you identify base pairs during replication?

·      Using a diagram of DNA making a new strand, how could you matching base pair. How would this change if the DNA is make RNA?

·      In replication which bonds are broken?

·      If DNA was replicating with radioactive Thymine, would it show up in future generations DNA? Why

·      In order, what are the four events that occur in DNA replication?

·      What are the enzymes involved with Replication?


Transcription ·      If you were given a DNA strand of code, could you predict the sequence of amino acids in the protein?

·      What are the enzymes in transcription?

·      What is produced in transcription?

·      If you were given a strand of DNA code, could you predict the effect of deleting one base in that code by showing the final amino acid sequence?

·      What are two factors that could change what protein would be formed?


Translation ·      In protein synthesis where and when are peptide bonds formed?

·      In protein synthesis where does transcription and translation occur?

·      rRNA is produced by which process?

·      What are the enzymes in translation?

·      What are the steps of protein synthesis from DNA to making a protein?

·      When does the base Thymine change to Uracil? Why?

·      Looking at the complete process of protein synthesis what is the purpose for:

a)     Ribosome moving to mRNA

b)    Adenine bonding to thymine

c)     An amino acid bonding to specific tRNA

d)    Forming a peptide bond

Gene Manipulation ·      What is recombinant DNA? Where does the DNA come from?

·      Using a diagram of a cells or bacteria cells DNA, how could recombinant DNA be used to make a specific protein


Enzymes ·      What is the sequence of events from combining substrate to enzyme and either making or breaking a chemical bond to make a new product?

·      What is the lock and key theory and how is it different from an enzyme whose active site changes? What is that process called?

What is :

·      Competitive inhibition

·      Non-competitive inhibition

·      Non-reversible inhibition

·      Coenzyme activity

Could you show the above interactions with a diagram?


Can you interpret graphs:

·      For amount of product vs progress of the reaction (time)

·      Rate of reaction vs Enzyme concentration

·      Energy level vs progress of reaction

·      Effect of denaturing an enzyme due to temperature

·      Effect of denaturing an enzyme due to ph.

·      Effect of denaturing and enzyme due to heavy metal


Enzyme lab interpretation ·      Interpreting enzyme lab results, a colour indicator is used to show the presence of a product.

·      Looking at a data table, could you predict the change in a colour due changes is substrate, acid, temperature, heavy metal, or increase of decreased concentrations of enzyme?

Interpretation of enzyme flow chart (see notes) If you were shown an interaction between two enzyme such as:


A with (enzyme 1) goes to B with (enzyme 2) goes to C


What would be two ways to increase the production of product C


What would be two ways to slow down or stop production of product C

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes,DNA and Protein Synthesis and have No Comments