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History of world and pathology assignment

Biology 11 : History of Pathology Time line

There is something known as the “butterfly affect”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect

The premise is that one small change can have a large affect. In Biology, a simple observation can sometimes lead to a discovery that save millions of lives. How could how one event affects another? How is it that rapid changes in on pursuit of knowledge can be linked to world history.

Using the following table you are to compare World History to the history of medicine and pathology.

  • In History of Pathology and Medicine you should included :
  • You should seek out the history, pathology and epidemics linked to HIV virus and Spanish Flu, E. Coli and Staphylcoccus, and Malaria and Trypanosoma.
  • You should also include new discoveries for curing disease, and the names of those who brought forth the discovery. ( examples: Morgani, Jenner, Pasteur, Walter Reed, Dr. Don Francis, Dr. Robert Gallo, Francoise Barre-Snoussi)

In world events, you should keep track of:

  • majour wars on the planet, changes in transportation and trades, periods of renaissance, revolutions (social and industrial), changes in human transportation and changes in world economy ( examples: world disasters such as Potato famine, Panama Canal, World Wars 1 and 2, and the Industrial revolution.

You are to use: Online resources (please cite your bibliography), including “Wikipedia” and

World History Date History of Pathology and Medicine


Comparative Questions

  1. How is the changes of movement of people linked to how diseases moved?
  2. Was the Spanish flu really from Spain?
  3. What 10 year period of time showed the greatest change both in world history and pathology?
  4. Hypothesize why this may have occurred.
  5. What three world events had the greatest affect upon pathology and medicine?
  6. What five events in the history of pathology may have had the greatest affect upon humanity?
  7. What new historical facts have changed previous ideas about any of the mentioned diseases?
  8. What world events may have limited research into a particular disease?
  9. What world events may have accelerated epidemics of a disease?
  10. What world events may have accelerate research into a disease?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio,Microbio,Protist and have No Comments

Aquarium Field Trip Day

Bio 11(16-17) L 36                                       Date Feb 10, 2017



Last lessons Objective



Exam on Virus and Immune System

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Field trip to aquarium

2.   Treasure hunt

3.   Natural, Pathological and world history assignment.



Number One

How to get to the Aquarium




Map for inside Aquarium




Rain gear, money for lunch or bring lunch

Notebook and writing gear.




Number Two

Treasure Hunt at aquarium.

See hand out.




Number Three

Time line assignment.

Will post in notes.


Text book Reference


You tube Reference  





Take Home Message ·      Germs is just a general term for a misunderstood living thing!


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Protist and have No Comments

Protist Notes

Protist:          A new bunch of organisms…


Some questions to ponder:


  1. How do these animal eat?
  2. How do they regulate water balance?
  3. How do they reproduce?
  4. What are some characteristics that can be used for classification?
  5. How are different types of protists both unique and different?
  6. What is the advantages and disadvantages of living in fresh water?
  7. What is the difference between a zooplankton and a phytoplankton?
  8. What phylums and kingdom do all these creatures belong to?


What is new! ( Comparing Protists to Bacteria and Virus)

  1. Protists are eukaryotes and so have
  • distinct nucleus
  • membrane bound cell organelles
  • unique flagella
  • are single celled
  • have cytoplasmic streaming


  1. Protist can live in a variety of environments, but are now larger so they need to regulate water balance and store and/or make food.


  1. Protist are more diverse in how they move, using flagellums, pseudopods and cilia and intermediate hosts.


  1. Some protists can change their body shape or cell membrane during their life cycle.


  1. Some protists can reproduce using sexual reproduction.


  1. Some protist, are parasitic they are called protozoans and cause diseases.


  1. Some protist have a silicone membranes and can glow in the dark!


  1. Tiny protists are the major food choice of some of the worlds largest animals.


General Protist Notes:


Where are they may found?…

  • Usually single cell creatures found in pond water
  • Over 50,000 living species
  • other locations and points of interest include:

used as a means to clean sewage

found in intestines of termites for digestion of cellulose

may be an infectious diseases such as

plasmodium…          which is malaria

trympanosoma….    which is called sleeping sickness

  • protist move in response to several stimuli. This movement is called Protist can respond both to light and chemical stimuli, positive phototropism allows organisms to be attracted to light. Negative tropism allows organisms to avoid harmful stimuli such as predators, low oxygen, lower temperatures and other possible harmful chemical or physical stimuli. This response ( to move away from a stimuli) is called an avoidance response.


On a historic note:


By jove! Forminifera (type of diatom) has hard shell which are used for dating early forms of life. Protozoans also show shell like deposits, an example is the White Cliffs of Dover in England.



Form and Function:

protists are Eukaryotes so…


  • usually unicellular, so no tissues yet….
  • have a nucleus with a membrane
  • can be motile
  • can be (animal like) heterotrophic or ( plant like) autotrophic
  • have complex arrary cell organelles




Note:  All protist belong to Kingdom Protista, which has four phylums.


  • Mostly Autotrophs called Phytoplankton


  1. Phylum Euglenophyta                         example        Euglena
  • autotrophic, chlorphyll
  • no cell wall
  • move about with flagella
  • found in fresh water and soil
  • attracted to light ( positive phototropic)


  1. Phylum Chrysophyta: example        Diatoms
  • autotrophic, chlorophyll and yellow pigment ( golden algae)
  • silica shell in cell wall form symetric shapes
  • found in oceans
  • positive phototropism
  • silicas used in commercial product such as pool filters, silver polish and            toothpaste


  1. Phylum Pyrrophyta: example        Dinoflagellates
  • autotrophic, chlorophyll, have red pigment which makes “red tide”
  • heavy rigid cell wall
  • two (dino) flagella
  • found in oceans
  • some species glow in dark ( bioluminescence: phenomenon of living      things giving off light, have protein which converts chemical energy to         ight energy.


  • Mostly Heterotrophs called Zooplankton:


  1. Phylum Protozoa ( classified by how they move)
  • usually heterotrophic
  • no cell walls, usually moveable cell membrane
  • can move about or live as parasite


Protozoan classification

class Sarcodinia    Amoeba

class Flagellata       trympanosoma and in termites

class Ciliophora      Paramecium

class Sporozoa       parasitic



Types of Locomotion:

flagella                                   found in Euglena

pseudo pod                          found in Amoeba

(cytoplasmic streaming)

            cilia                                         found in Paramecium


A quick comparison of three protist: ( note highlighted vocabulary)



  1. for movement it uses a flagellum, which makes the Euglena                                                                         very fast.


  1. for storing genetic material it has a nucleus and a nucleolus

which regulates protein sythesis and cell                                                                      control, it is asexual in reproductive behaviour


  1. for energy Euglena are autotrophs and have a chlorplast,                                                                        with chlorophyll which allows for                                                                          photosythesis


  1. for storing energy pyrenoids and parmylum store starch which                                                               is a product of photosythesis


  1. for protection and water it has a pellicle which maintains shape and

balance                                            allows for diffusion across cell membrane.


  1. Response to stimuli Euglena are attracted to light, this is call                                                                        phototropism



  • for locomotions it has extensions of cytoplasm which are                                                                      called pseudopod ( false foot), so an                                                                                   amoeba will move very slow. Ectoplasm ( layer                                                      closest to cell membrane) is water like next to                                                                        internal gel like endoplasm


  • for genetic material it has only one nucleus and is asexual


  • for energy it has food vacuoles which digest food                                                                          with enzymes and move nutrients to


  • to balance water it has contractile vacuoles, in a variety                                                              of positions within cytoplasm


  • to maintain shape it has an inner membrane, endoplasm

and an outer membrane, ectoplasm,                                                                             these two layers are needed since it is                                                                          constantly changing shape.


  • stimuli amoebas are attracted to food and                                                                                 some chemicals but move away from                                                                          harmful chemicals and light. (negative                                                                     tropism)



  • for locomotion it has cilia surrounding whole body so it                                                                        moves very fast.


  • for genetic information there is a micronucleus to controls                                                                                sexual reproduction, ( it divides during                                                                              conjugation)and a macronucleus to                                                                         control cell functions.


  • for feeding it has a “mouth” called an oral groove                                                                           and a mouth pore


  • for digestion it has a gullet which is like a stomach,                                                                           which forms food vacuoles


  • for removal of food waste there is an anal pore


  • for water balance there is a contractile vacuole


  • for shape there is a distinct cell membrane, a                                                                                rigid pellicle which holds cells shape.


  • for stimuli there are small “spears” call trichocyst                                                                                    which serve as a form of protection or                                                                               hunting for food.




  1. Ways to compare Zooplankton:


Function or Structure Euglena Amoeba Paramecium


Flagellum Pseudopod Cilia
Speed of locomotion Moderately Fast Very Slow Very fast
Nutrition or digestion autotroph

manufactures own food with chlorphyll


engulfs food at any point of cell membrane. Digests via food vacuoles


uses oral groove or gullet to suck in food (cyclosis)

Respiration or gas exchange Diffusion through cell membrane Same Same
Excretion of liquids and water balance Contractile vacuole in definite position contractile vacuole may vary in position two contractile vacuoles in definite position
Excretion of solids Through reservoir Pushed through membrane at any point Has an anal pore
Excretion of gaseous wastes Diffuse through cell membrane or through contractile vacuole if dissolved in fluid same same
Reproduction asexual via binnary fission asexual by binnary fission

may form cysts

asexual binary fission

sexual via conjugation

Shape definite shape
Behaviour responds to light, called phototrophic


+ to food and chemicals

– to light

+ to food and chemicals

– to trichocysts



The Amoeba


a nucleus

granular cytoplasm


semi-permeable membrane

engulfs food by using pseudopod


Other species





The Paramecium

member of class called the ciliates


cilia for locomotion

feeds through funnel like gullet

has 2 nuclei, reproduction through binary fission

for every single cell, 8 new ones are created

contractile vacuole controls water balance

sexual reproduction by conjugation


Protist are:

single cell


can be in colonies ( example: Volvox..has up to 5000 cells in it

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven Notes,Protist and have No Comments