VSB Science Blog

# Archive for October, 2015

## Science and Imagination

From the following list of references, find a link that fuels your imagination.

Record the actual page address and explain how imagination affects your day to day life and your life in the science classroom.

Science and imagination

EDxCarletonU 2010 – Jim Davies – The Science of Imagination

 Play video In his TEDxCarletonU Talk, Dr. Jim Davies leads us into the fascinating world of the study of imagination and more particularly how our perceptual history affects our imagination. For more… 00:12:57 Added on 21/09/2010 20,805 views

http://www.ted.com/talks/richard_feynman

http://www.ted.com/talks/john_bohannon_dance_vs_powerpoint_a_modest_proposal

http://www.ted.com/talks/david_deutsch_a_new_way_to_explain_explanation

http://blog.ted.com/lucy-mcrae-on-the-making-of-the-music-video-for-architecture-in-helsinki/

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posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

## Science 10 Oct 29th Class

Science 10 Lesson Outline                            Date: Oct 29th

Last lessons Objectives

Accelerations

Velocity

Chapter 8

Assigned Chapter Review

Egg speriment Web link!

http://eggdropproject.org

Use the criteria in the lab

Evaluations

Acceleration Worksheet

Today’s Objective 1 The importance of units in Physics

2 Review of Chapter 8 concepts and Exam

3 Review of Acceleration Quiz

Topic

Number One

How to do a step by step Acceleration Question

Please note the actual process of selecting information from a question and notice how formulas and facts are used to solve a question. Also note the discussion on acceleration.

http://www.flippingphysics.com/a-basic-acceleration-example-problem-and-understanding-acceleration-direction.html

 Play video More practice solving basic physics acceleration problems. In this video the EXPLAINER shows students how to set up and solve acceleration problems using the acceleration equation. 00:08:50 Added on 08/03/2014 1,688 views

http://physics.info/acceleration/practice.shtml

http://www.physicstutorials.org/home/mechanics/1d-kinematics/acceleration

http://www.solvephysics.com/problems_kinematics.shtml

http://www.flippingphysics.com/a-basic-acceleration-example-problem-and-understanding-acceleration-direction.html

video with instructions

http://www.flippingphysics.com/a-basic-acceleration-example-problem-and-understanding-acceleration-direction.html

http://www.flippingphysics.com/a-basic-acceleration-example-problem-and-understanding-acceleration-direction.html

Topic

Number Two

How is the graph of time and distance with acceleration different than uniform motion

Topic

Number Three

Work sheet solving using technique. Student groups selected to answer specific questions

Work book Reference

You tube Reference

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-6/Sample-Problems-and-Solutions

How to set up and do basic physics questions.

How to do basic velocity questions.

Wiki shows 12 step to solve velocity questions

http://www.wikihow.com/Calculate-Velocity

Real world physics questions

http://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/velocity-problems.html

Other stuff! Sign up for a group to do for “eggsperiment”

Due at the End of the month

Check web page for eggsperiment sheet

Next Class Chapter Nine Test next class
Take Home Message Keep it simple student..KISS principle

·

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10,Science Ten Lessons and have No Comments

## Biology 11 Oct 28th Class

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date Oct 28 th

 Last lessons Objective Isolation Mechanisms Evaluation Today’s Objectives o  How is adaption linked to mechanisms of change? o  What was Darwin’s logical proposal? o  Top 10 Assignment. Topic Number One Question: From your “gap” notes, what is a working definition for the term adaptation?   Constructing a time line for the theory of evolution.   How is “fixity of species” linked the finding a mechanism for change?   See “gap” notes for Chapter 3. Answer key is in green binder in Bio 11 Box Lab due at end of the week Topic Number Two Question: How create a logical argument   If “A” then “B” If “B” then “C” So If “ A” then “C”   With Darwin’s two step hypothesis there are two example of   this logic.   In step one: Note the importance of growth and reproduction rate related to overpopulation. Who did Darwin use to explore the struggle for existence in populations?   Step Two There is variety in population. What piece of evidence did Darwin not have? How did Wallace gather his evidence? Did Darwin coin the phrase “survival of the fittest”? What does this phrase actually mean? Topic Number Three Please refer to Darwin top ten Assignment Next Class Exam   Make key for next class Text book Ref Chapter Three Table You tube Reference Take Home Message Was Darwin lucky in regards to evidence for his theory? Why is the theory of evolution so controversal?

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

## Bio 11 Darwin Top Ten Assignment

Mission Number One:

Go on line and find 10 unknown facts about Darwin.

Mission Number Two

From the following ten locations find the following:

1. At least 8 definitions for evolutions

1. A discussion of Lamarack verses Darwin

1. A discussion comparing Wallace to Darwin

1. A discussion on Darwin’s struggles and life

1. A discussion on creationism verse Natural Selection

1. A discussion able the pros and cons of Darwin’s theory

1. A discussion about evolution of aquatics ecosystems and biomes

1. A discussion on how evolution is used in the work place or as a job.

1. 24 myths about evolution

1. Criteria to be a human

http://www.ck12.org/biology/Theory-of-Evolution-by-Natural-Selection/web/Changes-in-the-Environment/

http://humanorigins.si.edu/

http://www.nsta.org/evolution/

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

## Biology 12 Oct 28th Class

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                      Date Oct 28 th

 Last lessons Objective The Cell Membrane (Structure and function) Evaluation Today’s Objectives 1.   Using a diagram to illustrate 12 structures and functions of the cell membrane. 2.   What is diffusion? 3.   What patterns of movement are show with M&M’s in water. Topic Number One Go to the following link to explore the jobs of the cell membrane.   Use the information at this site to complete the 12 membrane challenges sheet.   https://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesson.php?url=collection/van_/lessons/van_membrane2/van_membrane_lesson2.xml Topic Number Two ·      Read and be prepared to compare the following two structures and processes. ·      Diffusion and osmosis ·      Semi permeable membrane and selectively permemeable membrane Topic Number Three Friday’s class will be lab based inquiry on osmosis. Please look at Inquiry in action site. Text book Reference Chapter Four : Cell Membrane   Note: There is a class note package with worksheet. You tube Reference Comparing diffusion to osmosis http://www.diffen.com/difference/Diffusion_vs_Osmosis   Inquiry with M&M’s (for last classes lab) http://www.inquiryinaction.org/classroomactivities/activity.php?id=2   The cell the crash course and biomolecules https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0&list=PLGhyYgjyXvCO8LDLLUqpf57K7IT5iZaHz Take Home Message ·      The structure of the cell membrane is associated with the challenges of moving material across a lipid and protein fluid mosaic.   ·      For particles to move they can move with a concentration gradient or against a concentration gradient.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

# Evolution Project: Evolution of the _________.

The purpose of this activity is to find an item within your life that you can examine and explore ideas related to the concept of evolution. For example; how has a particular toy changed since you were a child? How has the fashion of shoes changed? What about the evolution of “Barbie” or GI Joe? Has there been a change in sporting items such as: skis, snowboards; baseball gloves and golf clubs?

• Part One: Selecting an item ( 4 marks)

Select an item within your life that you have been interested in since your were a child. This item can be a type of toy, a sporting item, an article of clothing or another category that you wish to present. Once you have selected an item, please consult with me and sign up to insure no duplication of projects.

What are you looking for?

1. In reference to your item, find and provide evidence of a minimum of four stages of structural alterations that have occurred.
2. Show these stages with a diagram, drawing or rich written description.

• Part Two: Describing your item ( 8 marks)
1. By observing and describing qualitative and quantitative observations of your item, describe how the features of your item have changed with time.
2. Using the biological vocabulary listed in your vocabulary sheet, describe changes of your items in biological terminology.
3. Cite evidence of items that may have been ancestors to your item.
4. Make a family tree of your item
5. On your family tree show possible convergence and divergence, and any other patterns of inheritance.

Part Three: Mechanisms of change and your item                           total:   (8 marks)

Describe mechanisms that caused the change

1. Using Lamarack’s and Darwin’s ideas to explain why or how your item changed with time                   ( 4 marks).
2. Use your family tree to describe and label possible mechanisms of change.

( 2 marks)

1. Compare two other non-biological mechanisms or causes for changes of your items, ( For example: Consumerism, Media and advertising, Fads and economics). ( 2 marks)

Presentations of assignment:

You can present your information in one of the following choices:

1. A web page ( on a disk or on line)
2. A written report with diagrams ( in a duotang binder)
3. A poster board with a written explanation of the content on the board.

• You will be judged not on the amount of content but the quality of content. So please do not attempt to publish a book!
• Content will be marked both on quality of presentation ( please type out material) and effort shown while working on project

• Complete prior to consultation:
 You first item choice second choice Stages of development Stages of development 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. Possible ancestor Possible ancestor Confirmation of consultation Confirmation of consultation

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

# Nelson Text Review Questions   : Chapter 3

1. The modern view of evolution is based on scientific evidence which combines both genetic information and the theory of natural selection. It implies a change over time. Earlier beliefs were based on opinion and nonscientific evidence. This earlier view held that living things had been “fixed” since the beginning, and were unchangeable.

1. The variety (adaptation) of beak types displayed by the islands’ finch species made the greatest impression on Darwin.

1. Survival of the fittest means that individuals with traits best suited for and environment are better able to compete, survive, and reproduce. Adaptation is the basis through which natural selection can occur, with those individuals that are best adapted to particular environments becoming the most successful reproducers. The direction of evolution is determined by the adaptation.

1. Lamarck offered and explanation for the mechanism of evolution – that species change over time, and that the environment is a factor n that change. He showed that evolution is adaptive and that the diversity of life is the result of adaptation (see pages 91- 93).

1. Buffon’s theory indicated that the creation of a species did not occur in a single place at a single time and that a species was not created in a perfect state. Later he wondered if certain species might develop from a common ancestor. Darwin accepted Buffon’s ideas and went on to provide an explanation for the manner in which species change over time.

1. Structural, physiological, and biochemical are the three types of adaptation.

1. The moths adapted a color (pigmentation) change from light-colored to predominantly dark-colored (melanic) forms in response to the environmental changes caused by the industrial fumes of the mid-1800s.

## Applying the Concepts

1. The study of genetics has shown that acquired characteristics cannot be passed on to offspring, so Lamarck’s ideas have been proven incorrect.

1. a) Lamarck would have suggested that the zebra wanted to avoid the annoying bite of the tsetse fly and developed the striped to do this.

1. b) Darwin or Wallace would have suggested that some zebras were striped more than others. Tsetse flies bit those that had few stripes, or had pale stripes. These zebras got the parasite and died, and the striped zebras, which were bitten less frequently, reproduced and passed the stripes to their offspring.

1. c) Answers can vary.

1. Human activities can affect evolution by isolating populations of organisms in different areas. Small organisms are less likely to cross roads to find a mate, so the road can become an effective barrier. Bridges can bring two isolated populations together, stopping their speciation.

1. Lamarck had recognized the impact of environmental factors on the course of evolution. He recognized that the mechanism for evolution was natural selection through adaptation. This became the basis for Darwin’s theory of evolution.

1. The traditional and widely accepted model for the rate of evolutionary change holds that change occurs slowly or gradually within populations of organisms. The peppered moth case (and others mentioned in the test) demonstrated that certain changes (e.g., coloration in moths) can take place rapidly.
• Some populations (e.g., mosquitoes exposed to insecticides) show wide fluctuations in number, indicating the loss (or gain) of tremendous numbers of individuals, but the species continues (although it may evolve in the process).

• The loss of individuals may reduce the gene pool and modify the population, but the species continues.

• The life span of individuals is trivial in comparison to the “life span” of species. Hence, specific individuals contribute very little to the survival of the species. On the other hand, if the species does not survive, there will of course be no more individuals.
1. Adaptation to environment is a very complex process and very difficult to study in the natural environment. It is impossible, for example, to devise and experiment to show the effect on a caribou population of another ice age. Adaptation also takes a very long time, and may not be suitable for direct study (e.g., even an adaptation taking hundreds of years would be difficult to study directly). Carefully constructed computer models mimic the response of organisms in the “real world,” and allow scientists to run simulations that show, in minutes, the effects of environmental changes that might take years of real time. They can also vary different aspects of the environment and look at their effects on populations. Supercomputers allow such models to contain far more complexity and to be more realistic. Examples will be various.
2. Answers will vary, and might include some of the following:

• Roads can be a barrier to some species, and their construction can subdivide populations. Each smaller population may experience slightly different selection pressures, and it may contain a slightly different gene pool than the original, continuous, population.

• Hydroelectric dams cause extensive flooding and disruption of natural populations, creating new sets of selection pressures which can affect the direction and rate of evolution. Some major projects have even been stopped because they would cause the extinction of a specific organism found only in the area that would be disrupted by the dam.

• The building of navigable waterways connecting previously unconnected (or poorly connected) bodies of water allows the spread of species beyond previous limits, and alters community composition and selection pressures (e.g., the lamprey entering the Great Lakes).

• Pumping of wasted water from ships’ bilges has been implicated in the introduction the zebra mussel to the Great Lakes, introducing a new and fast-growing grazer to the community, with implications both for existing species and for our use of the waterways.

1. High reproductive capacity is normally linked with high egg number and short development time (e.g., many species of fish and insects). Where there are many young, there will be many different combinations of parental genes, increasing the chance that there will be some combinations that are better able to withstand a particular selection pressure. Such populations can also respond more rapidly to sudden pressures. (Compare the response of humans, which have a nine-month gestation period and approximately 20 years between generations, with the response of flies, which may have only days between successive generations.)

## Critical-Thinking Questions

1. Answers will vary. When humans are domesticating animals and plants, they choose traits that they (the humans) want to propagate. They do not allow “nature to take its course.” For example, animals many thousands of miles apart can parent an offspring by artificial insemination; this would not occur naturally.

1. answers should recognize that, in the Galapagos, similar populations of organisms invaded a series of islands on which there were different selection pressures. It is almost the type of situation a researcher might set up if she were interested in evolution in natural situations, and if she had hundreds (perhaps thousands) of years to observe the results. Answers should include the idea of isolation one island population from populations on other islands and /or the mainland.

1. If a Lamarckian explanation of evolution were to be endorsed, then evolutionary changes in an organism would be interpreted as meeting the needs of the individual organism.

1. Answers will vary, but may be evaluated in relation to the literature used to research them.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

## Biology 11 Chapter 3 Lecture Notes

Chapter Three: Mechanisms of Change

Some notes to stimulate your appetite to think about the mechanisms of change and how to prepare for chapter three quiz.
In chapter two, we are introduced to evidence regarding showing change with time. The premise is this, from direct and indirect evidence; there are observations that show a change with time. This process of change with time can be shown in adaptations in populations of organisms. We have noted that this process can be shown using concepts such as speciation and isolation mechanisms. Basically, keep one species away from another and allow mating only to occur within this population, the chances are that a unique species will evolve. In chapter three, we begin to hypothesize about the mechanism that causes this change.

Historical note:

Though some philosophers have suggested that we learn nothing from observing history, the case is not the same for observing fossils. We begin with the notion that all species are fixed. No that does not mean neutered but that all species were put on the earth at a specific time and in a specific place. From a western philosophical point of view, those folks that were busy classifying nature never challenged this idea. Biologists were in fact part of a field of inquiry known as natural history and sometimes grouped with natural philosophers. For many years, “Naturalists” were quite content to just identify and classify and to create some universal means to classify all living things. Then the inquiry into how things worked began. The scientific method created a method of thinking to examine the world. Forces such as gravity and energy became the field of inquiry for scientists. From this inquiry came “laws” and interpretations of chemical and physical forces. As naturalist began to observe more history of organisms upon the earth, the inquiry began to follow the same pattern of questioning. What was going on? Why did organisms become extinct? Why were animals different? Were there unknown forces within nature, like the forces of gravity and Newtonian physics?

So lets look into the text to answer the following:

Who started asking questions about the fixity of species and how could this questioning affect how people perceived fossils?

Once a question is asked, more will follow.

So who proposed the idea of adaptations, the law of use and disuse?

Why do you suppose he used a term such as “law”?

Let’s make a few observations such as”: a heron has long legs, some insects are resistant to insecticides,and some organisms have thick skin or fur.

How could we explain these adaptations from Lamarck and Darwin’s point of view?

Now lets get logical and examine some of the ideas proposed by both Lamarck and Darwin.

Here are some statements, can you identify ones that Darwin would support or Lamarck would support?

Which Statements can be used with the other to create an argument?

Many types of variations exist within a species
Members of a species tend to increase in a geometric ration from generation to generation (example 2:4:8:16: 32)
Some variations have more survival value than others
Organisms in a population reproduce, but the population tends to remain constant
There is a struggle for survival
Organisms are able to adapt to their environment when they inherit variations that have been developed by their parents through use and disuse of certain organs
How would Darwin use some of these statements to support his mechanism of change?

With both Darwin and Lamarck, we have a key problem to consider: Does the environment affect how an organism evolves, or does the organism have a means to adapt to the environment?

One of the key issues is the notion of choice. If we accept the idea that the environment is selecting species, then does the notion of “free will” and “choice” have a place in human thought?

So let’s look outside the realm of the human mind. Organisms on the planet have genetic material. This material allows organisms to display traits. This information, first shown by an inventive monk named Mendel remained unknown to both Lamarck and Darwin. While both were looking for a source of change, either within the organism or due to the environment, neither of them knew about the origin and transmission of variation.

Darwin did consider domestic animal breeding and noted how humans could artificially select traits, but he still didn’t know about the source of these traits. He did suggest that through artificial breeding of animals, humans could “select” a desirable trait. However he was still in a muddle about the origins of traits or why some organisms produced infertile young. For example, the notion of a “hybrid”…which is a product of a cross of two species and in some cases can be infertile such as a donkey and horse was a mystery to Darwin. Darwin did note the formation of species, and the multiplication of species or speciation. He suggested that this process was gradual with time. Yet the more evidence that was brought forth challenged this portion of his idea. Can you define and show examples of the idea known as “punctuated equilibrium”?

Now here is the challenge…

Darwin suggested that his observations about finches in the Galapagos islands was an example of the process of evolution and that by noting this process, the mechanism for natural selection could be illustrated

First of all…who offered the idea of a struggle for existence and natural selection to Darwin?
Now by using some of the terminology such as:

Isolation mechanisms

Speciation

Hybrid

Competition

Predators

Can you describe what occurred with the finches and why they changed with time? Remember to break up you explanation into two parts…the observations that showed a process and the concepts that explain the mechanism.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

## Biology 11 Oct 26th

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date Oct 26 th

 Last lessons Objective Fossils and changes with time Evaluation Today’s Objectives 1.      Isolation mechanisms (5) http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/jim/Sp/isolmech.html   2.     Directional Change http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-directional-selection-examples-definition-graph.html   3.     Non Directional Change http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/888/1/Basic%20Patterns%20of%20Evolution%20-%20formatted.pdf Topic Number One Question: What can separate one species from reproducing with another species?   What “barriers” between species can be crossed?   What is an example of a “boing” situation?   Using the hand out on snails, can you give examples for 4 isolation mechanisms in other species. Lab due at end of the week Topic Number Two Question: How can a family tree be used to show changes in the structures found in elephant teeth?   Note 1.   Record data on graph with family number 2.   Connect related family tree names. 3.   No graph line can go vertical. Why? 4.   Plates on the teeth are linked to types of food the elephant can eat. 5.   How is this related to the evolution of the elephant? Topic Number Three Directional Change is a slow and gradual change. An example is the case study of evolution of the horse.   In the elephant lab there is both directional and nondirectional change.   How are these changes related to isolation mechanisms? Next Class Exam   Make key for next class Text book Ref Chapter Two Table You tube Reference Directional Change https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jw8UGcRCxR0   Family tree history of elephants https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdzXQOBg9Ng   Elephant Evolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utNxHs6ghSw   Using teeth to explore evolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rDIBtP85F3c Take Home Message Isolate a species and that can change how it evolves. Some changes may be linear and other may branch. Why?   Why would a wooly mammoth not survive if it was genetically engineered today?

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

## Science 10 Oct 27th

Science 10 Lesson Outline                            Date: Oct 27th

 Last lessons Objectives Accelerations Velocity Chapter 8 Assigned Chapter Review   Egg speriment Web link! http://eggdropproject.org   Use the criteria in the lab Evaluations Acceleration Worksheet Today’s Objective 1 The importance of units in Physics 2 Review of Chapter 8 concepts and Exam 3 Review of Acceleration Quiz Topic Number One So how do I get facts and come up with a strategy? Why are units important?   How to solve basic velocity Questions. Facts, Formula, Work and Units Topic Number Two How are acceleration questions different than velocity questions? What units change? What is the role of uniform motion? What is the role of change in direction and velocity? Topic Number Three Basic misconceptions for Chapter 8     Basic misconceptions for Chapter 9 Work book Reference Chapter Eight and Chapter Nine You tube Reference Basic Physics Questions http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-6/Sample-Problems-and-Solutions   How to set up and do basic physics questions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT_SVQAqX9k   How to do basic velocity questions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWawC3UGpf0   Wiki shows 12 step to solve velocity questions http://www.wikihow.com/Calculate-Velocity   Real world physics questions http://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/velocity-problems.html Other stuff! Sign up for a group to do for “eggsperiment” Due at the End of the month Check web page for eggsperiment sheet Next Class Chapter Nine Test Take Home Message The most important lesson to learn in life is not to give up! ·

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10,Science Ten Lessons and have No Comments