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Bio 11 (2017-18) Evolution Chapter 3 Oct 25

Bio 11 (17-18) Evolution                                     Oct. 25,2017



Last lessons Objective



Darwin’s Daring Proposal

Today’s Objectives o  1) Adaptive Radiation and what Darwin did not know

o  Gradual Rate of Evolution

o  Punctuated Equilibrium

o  Evalutation Timeline


Number One


Darwin verses Lamarck

Key differences in vocabulary


Acquired Characteristic

Law of Use and Disuse



Struggle for existence via Malthus

Competition and survival of fittest via Wallace.


Remember 4 Examples included those found in the text.


What neither knew was the source of diversity in traits in a population.


The idea of adaptive radiation is a noun..it is a concept that proposes the the more diverse the population the easier it is for that population to radiate and adapt to a larger range of areas.

 Lab due at end of the week

Number Two


So whose theory did Darwin argue with?

Darwin verse Lamarack


Darwin’s argument

A yahoo version



An more academic version



Lets revise..and simply


If a population grows without any limiting factor is grows at a geometric rate.

Geometric growth leads to over population

Yet there is no over population and this is due to “a struggle for existence” ( related to economics idea by Malthus)


Part two

With a population, the is a diverse range of how a trait is shown. (think about a litter of puppies).


Those traits that allow the species to survive, are passed onto the next generation.


The mechanism that select which traits are passied onto the next generation is a natural selection.

Note..”survival of the fittest” was not first written by Darwin.




Wallace also noticed a selection process by natural sources in his collection of animals.


The main focus of Darwin’s argument was to challenge Lamarck’s idea that individual species changed with time due to use and disuse of traits.


He used fossil records and data acquired in his five year voyage to propose “the origin of the species”.


In regards to his interpretation of changes in beak structure of finches, we should not that

Each island had limited predation, a unique habitat that created a variety of food sources. These factors within the environment were used to support his argument.










Darwin Verses Lamarck




Comparison Table




Focus Questions:

Is a theory a fact?

How does the scientific method provide structure to create a theory?

How are direct and indirect evidence used to replace an actual experiment that validates Darwin’s ideas?

Is there a way to create an experiment that could validate the mechanisms of evolution?

For Darwin, what selects a trait?

How does this differ with Lamarck?

What is a common missing factor that both Darwin and Lamarck did not know about?

How could you disprove Lamarck idea of an acquired characteristics?


Rate of Change within evolution


Gradual Change



Punctuated equilibrium



Gradualism verse punctuated



Venn diagram to compare



Focus Questions





Number Three


answering question about natural selection




This is not a proof that changes occur with time, it is a proposal of the mechanism as to why things change with time.


Artificial Selection






Text book Ref


Chapter Three

Case study on Moths (Natural Selection)

Page 96 in Nelson Text

Answer all question and put into green duotang


Case study DDT ( Artificial Selection)

Page 101 in Nelson Text

Answer all questions and put into green duotang

You tube Reference Natural Selection Rap



Artificial Selection Rap



Take Home Message A theory is a form of an objective argument based upon evidence that is usually used to support a hypothesis that has been replicated in a variety of formats.


Theories can change with time and they are not facts.


To create a logically sound argument, it is wise to examine objective evidence that both supports and argues the premise that you are defending.


Do not go into a battle of wits with an unarmed opponent.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

Bio 11 (2017-18) L 1

Bio 11 (2017-18)                                                    Date Sept 8



Last lessons Objective



Life outside of room 411


Soak up sun and relax


Introduction video



Today’s Objectives 1.    Biology 11 “saying and doing” and the art of observation

2.    What is a hypothesis

3.    Designing a testable idea


Number One


Getting squared away

In another world



From the Gunny




Chalk talk


Mental toughness






A secret plan



Number Two

The art of observation

What is an observation?

Examining sample jars and trying to organize observations.

Types of observations

1.    Qualitative

2.    Quantitative

What is biology?




Number Three

Scientific Method and Experimental Design

Khan Academy step of scientific method




·      Control

·      Independent variable

·      Dependent variable

·      Hypothesis

·      Observe to question, use “if ..then”


Be able to propose means to test an idea.


How to outline a lab




Univ. of Toronto outline




Text book Reference


Chapter One


Make Cornell notes of chapter one.








Online and You tube Reference  

Khan Academy : Welcome to Biology





Scientific Method







Take Home Message RUAWAKE

When you least expect it, something can happen.



Semper gumby!

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Lower Plant Review Sheet


Lower Plant Review


Plants in general


  • Alternation of generations is defined as the switching back and forth between ___ and ____.
  • What does asexual reproduction not provide?
  • Is alternation a change in ploidy of cell or going from sporophyte to gametophyte?
  • What process makes spores?
  • What generations makes gametes?
  • What structures do all plants have?




  • What would be one effect on the global ecosystem if algae died off?
  • What is the relationship between algae and chlorphyll?
  • What are some examples for algae for moving onto land (think of seaweed and tides)
  • Taxonomically speaking, what are the three types of algae?
  • What is the dominant generation in algae?
  • Algae absorb carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nutrients directly from _____
  • In regards to lower plants, what are some adaptions to land?





  • What are some examples of moss moving onto land ( moss are pioneer species)
  • What are two functions of moss “leaves”
  • Why are moss found in damp or wet environments?
  • How is water transported through moss?
  • What is the dominant generation in moss?
  • What generation and ploidy are the moss you see while walking through the woods.
  • Do moss have “rhizoids”?
  • What is unique about moss and their sporophyte and gametophyte generations?
  • Can you label a diagram of a moss?
  • Where are sperms made in moss?
  • How could you identify the sporophyte generations in moss?
  • Why are most good for sterilizing and healing wounds.
  • How are moss related to coal?
  • How does moss used to make Scotch?





  • What are some examples of how ferns have successfully moved onto land
  • How do ferns prevent them selves from self-ferilization?
  • What are two functions of a sporangium?
  • Compare and contrast the gametophytes of mosses and ferns (describe one similarity and one difference between the two)
  • What is the dominant generation in ferns?
  • In ferns, what is the function of antheridia and archegonia
  • In ferns where are spores made and by what process?
  • Although ferns are “true” land plants, they require water for what process?
  • Where are sperm made in fern?
  • What system do ferens have that moss and algae do not have?
  • When we see ferns during a walk through a forest, which generation are we looking at?
  • Why do ferns grow taller than algae and moss?
  • What structures of a fern have been used in salads and by indigenous people


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Bio 12 (2016-17) Lesson 48 action potential

Biology 12 (16-17) L 48                                                     Date: May 8


Last lessons Objective  

1.   Intro to Nervous System



Today’s Objective 1.   Review Neuron structures

2.   Action Potential

3.   Action Potential Sheets


Topic One It is a neuron and not a nerve!

Intro video



Tricks: There are five distinct cell structures that allow you to classify three neuron types.

Key questions:

Were is the cell body?

Which is longer, axon or dendrites?

Which cell types have myelin


2 minute lesson





How do you make a wave?

Lets start with basic wave structures. You have a high point and a low point. On a y axis, this high and low in action potentials is in millivolts. Simplified, voltage is the amount of “push”.


Bozeman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HYLyhXRp298


So breaking it down into three steps there is


Inside the actual neuron, the voltage is shifting from negative to positive. This is done by the inflow of sodium into the axon. Outside of the axon, the charge shifts from positive to negative. Note which way “the wave” moves.


Once the action potential reaches it’s peak, then the charge needs to shift from positive to negative. Now, potassium moves out of the cell, shifting the voltage back to negative.

Recovery Period

Now the cell become too negative and so some fine tuning is needed via active transport, to move some sodium in and at the same time move potassium out.

So let’s find some “links” to visualize this process.

A simple step by step video



Khan academy feedback



Entering “sodium gates”



Like this one





So here are some key focal points

1)    It is the movement of Sodium going into the cell and the movement of potassium going out of the cell that generates “the wave”.

2)    This wave can be faster by moving from “node to node” verses opening several gates in a sequence.

3)    Action potential starts with a specific electrical voltage within the axon. This is an all or nothing phenomena. You either have the initial voltage to start the wave or you have no message sent.

4)    This process involves four protein carriers. One is active transport during the recovery period.

5)    If you think you have seen this graph before, you are right. Remember the circulatory system?



Text Ref  



You tube  


Class Notes Types of neurons.

Action potential


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Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 25 Dec 8

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 26                                         Date Dec 8 2016



Last lessons


1)    Review virus reproductive

2)    Intro to notion of an infection

3)    Intro to immunology


Today’s Objectives 1)    Virus and immune system and big Ideas

2)    Active and Passive Immunity

3)    Introduction to Monera



Number One

·      Defining critical thinking

·      Self evaluation


Virus and immune system


Three Big Ideas

a)   Taxonomy

b)   DNA and Evolutions

c)   Activity of life


1)    Properties of a virus

2)    Virus Quiz



Online Reference






Number Two



Using bio vocab to discuss two types of immunity.


Active: to initiate full immune response with memory

Passive: No immune response just antibodies and no memory


Active verses passive immunity




Bio quizlets


·      https://quizlet.com/10792737/viruses-bacteria-and-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/125940964/bacteria-viruses-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/109837387/chapter-17-chapter-35-viruses-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/42975170/viruses-and-immune-system-flash-cards/



Number Three

Problems to solve:

·      What is Monera?

·      Classification of Monera

·      What do bacteria do?

·      How to observe bacteria


General characteristics of the kingdom Monera are as follows:


•   They are primitive organisms.

•   All organisms of the kingdom are prokaryotes.

•   They are present in both living and non-living environment.

•   They can survive in harsh and extreme climatic conditions like in hot springs, acidic soils etc.

•   They are unicellular organisms.

•   Membrane bound nucleus is absent.

•   DNA is in double stranded form, suspended in the cytoplasm of the organism,referred as nucleoid.

•   A rigid cell wall is present.

•   Membrane bound cellular organelles like mitochondria are absent.

•   Habitat – Monerans are found everywhere in hot springs, under ice, in deep ocean floor, in deserts and on or inside the body of plants and animals.

•   Nutrition – autotrophs – can prepare their own food, heterotrophs – depend on others for food, saprophytes – feed on dead and decaying matter, parasitic – live on other host cells for survival and cause, symbiotic – in mutual relation with other organisms, commensalism – it is where one organism is benefited and the other is not affected, mutualism – where both the organisms are benefited.

•   Respiration – respiration in these organisms vary, they may be obligate aerobes – the organisms must have organisms for survival; obligate anaerobes – the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen; facultative anaerobes – these organisms can survive with or without oxygen.

•   Circulation – is through diffusion.

•   Movement – is with the help of flagella.

Reproduction is mostly asexual, sexual reproduction is also seen. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission, sexual reproduction is by conjugation, transformation and transduction.


Key Points



·      Kingdom verse Domain

·      By structure and by function

·      Defining what is a primitive structure

·      Defining by metabolism



·      Auto and Heterotroph

·      Aerobe and anaerobe

·      Photo and Chemo synthesis

·      Taxis


Positive and negative roles of bacteria


12 Positive roles



A comparison of good to bad




Observing Bacteria


Through a microscope





Looking at petri dishes



Chemical responses and Staining



Yogurt and bacteria




Text book Ref


Gap notes for Bacteria

Chapter 8

Online Youtube videos


·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvcq8LziGd0

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtaATIC0S3E

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZGQfO85uzM



Take Home Message Critical thinking is


“thinking that attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honesty evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments”.


Donald Hatcher

“Reasoning and Writing”

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Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 24 Nov 29th

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 24                                         Date Nov 29 2016



Last lessons


1)    Test 3

2)    Mind Map for Virus


Today’s Objectives 1)    What is a virus

2)    Virus and virus reproductive cycles

3)    Pathology of a virus



Number One


Exam Review Feedback

·      Multiple choice Questions

·      Challenge with interpreting a diagram

·      Building blocks of DNA (Nucleotide)

·      RNA verse DNA

·      Pro and Eukaryote (see hand out)


Activities of life included with Virus

Virus alive or not

Diagrams of Virus (Ten structures)

Shapes of Virus (3)

Three cycles for virus ( lytic, latent and mutagenic)


Structure and function

Biomolecules (Protein,DNA and RNA)


Web information











Today’s powerpoint






Number Two

What does a reproductive cycle show?

Types of cycles

a)   Lytic     (Lysis is to break)

b)   Latent (remains dormant in cell)

c)   Mutagenic (Changes DNA in host)

Key points

Where is the virus in relationship to the host cell

What is the affect of viral nucleic acid on host

What are three ways that viruses get into cells? (video)



What is a retrovirus?


Video comparing lytic verse lysogenic






Number Three

Pathology is study of disease

Problems with Host and non host interactions

Introduction to the immune system.


Videos discussing pathology





Text book Ref


Chapter 7 (Taxonomy and virus)

Chapter   (The immune system)

Online Next step ( Reproduction and not dying)



See acme guide to immune system as you listen to this video



Take Home Message Vaca in Spanish means “cow”. Don’t have a cow disease!
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Biology 12 Lesson Sept 28 2016

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                            Date: Sept 28 2016


Last lessons Objective


1.    Nucleic acid to ATP, RNA and DNA  
Today’s Objective a)    Practice quiz identifying biomolecules

b)   How to study productively

c)    Introduction to the cell


Number One

Review of structure and function of biomolecules



Number Two

How to study productively

Studying is a balance between what you do and why you do it.

·      If you change the reason why you study, then you will also change what you do.

·      If you start study sessions with an objective to learn and take a quiz to discover what you do not know, then after a study session you can note how much you have processed by retaking the same evalutation.

·      Text books already have questions within each chapter to focus your attention on the specific information that could answer the questions within the text.

·      Information can be ranked from finding a simple fact by asking “what”.

·      As you change the question from what to how or why, you need find more evidence to answer the question.

·      Making to notes to memorize limits the depth of information you can discover.

·      Linking facts together fact with facts can be used explain both how and why,

·      The objective of each study session should be to evolve from simple whats to hows and whys.

·      Remember..the mind is like a parachute, it only works if it is open.

·      When you study, open your path of inquiry


Number Three

Introduction to the Cell

a)    The cell Theory


b)   Importance of surface area to volume



c)    Life inside and outside of the cell




Text Reference Chapter 3


You tube Reference Really cool stuff!


Cell structure



Cell structure and function



BBC The cell:the hidden kingdom



BBC secret of life




Class Notes References New set of class notes handed out


Take Home message



To be inspired…you need to let go of those things that make you uninspired. Evaluation Next Class
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comparing parasitic worms

Comparing Parasitic Worms


  Tapeworm Liver Fluke Ascaris Trichinella
Phylum Platyhelminthes Platyhelminthes Nematoda Nematoda
Class Cestoda Trematoda    
How is this worm adapted to a parasitic lifestyle? 1.     Scolex with hooks for attaching to intestines of host

2.    No mouth or digestive system – long flat body absorbs nutrients directly from host

3.    Sensory receptors reduced or absent

4.    Tegument (modified epidermis) protects against hosts digestive enzymes and immune system

5.    Cuticle secreted by the epidermis also protects the worm

6.    Hermaphroditic with well developed reproductive system capable of mating with each other and producing hundreds of thousands of eggs (no digestive system makes more room for eggs)

7.    Proglottids capable of mating with each other, drop off when eggs ripe to infect intermediary host

8.    Embryos form a bladder or cyst in intermediary host and wait to be eaten by primary host

1.     Oral sucker for attaching to host

2.    tegument ot protect against hosts’s digestive juices and immune system

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body

1.     Female lays 200,000 eggs per day which pass out with feces

2.    When new host eats contaminated food new infection occurs

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body

1.     Larvae form cysts in muscle tissue

2.    When muscle eaten by predator, larvae are released into stomach to begin life cycle

3.    Larvae able to burrow through host tissues and use the circulatory system to travel throughout the body


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Porifera Gap Notes

Biology 11

Mr Carmichael

Name: ___________________________ Date: _________ Block: ___



The Invertebrates

Text page 304


  • An invertebrate is any animal that lacks a ______________.
  • Of the 36 animal phyla, only one phylum includes animals with backbones, the Vertebrates. This is the phylum ______________ which includes us humans.
  • Approximately 95% of all animals on earth are Invertebrates
  • We will study the following 8 Invertebrate Phyla:
  1. Phylum ______________ (Sponges)
  2. Phylum ______________ (Jellyfish, Anemone, Corals, etc.)
  3. Phylum ______________ (Flatworms)
  4. Phylum ______________ (Roundworms)
  5. Phylum ______________ (Segmented Worms)
  6. Phylum ______________ (Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squids, etc.)
  7. Phylum ______________ (Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, etc.)
  8. Phylum ______________ (Sea Stars, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Urchins, etc.)


  • In order to survive, all animals must be able to perform 7 essential functions:
  1. ______________: Obtain energy and nutrients for survival
  2. ______________: Consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
  3. ______________: Circulatory system to carry oxygen, food and wasted to and from cells of the body
  4. ______________: Eliminate poisonous waste from the body
  5. ______________: Sensory cells and nervous system to find food, spot predators and locate others of their own kind
  6. ______________: Either sexual (helps create genetic diversity) or asexual
  7. ______________: Musculo-skeletal system


Phylum Porifera: The Sponges

(Latin: porus = “pore”, ferre = “to bear”)

Pages 304-306


  1. Background:
  • Porifera means “animal with pores” and sponges have a lot of pores
  • Sponges are the ______________ and ______________ of animals


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The oldest known animal fossils are sponges


  • Many early naturalists thought that sponges were plants. In 1765 the internal water currents were observed which led to the realization that sponges are animals
  • There are over 5,000 different species, most live in salt water but a few species live in fresh water
  • Sponges have been used for thousands of years for cleaning and other purposes


  • 3 Major Classes:

There are three major Classes of Poriferans:

  1. ______________: Sponges containing Calcium carbonate (chalk) spicules
  2. ______________: Sponges containing Silica (glass) spicules
  3. ______________: Sponges containing Silica (glass) spicules and Spongin (~ 90% of all sponges)


  1. Body Plan/Structure:
  • ______________ – the most primitive multicellular animal group
  • ______________ or sometimes ______________ symmetrical body plan
  • Two types of openings:
    • ______________ (plural: ostia) = small pore in the side of the sponge where water flows ______________ to the sponge
    • ______________ (plural: oscula) = large opening at the top of the sponge where water flows______________ of the sponge
  • ______________ = central cavity surrounded by walls with thousands of pores
  • ______________ level of organization
    • no true tissues, no organs, muscles, nerves, mouth or digestive cavity
    • just groups or specialized cells that all serve different functions


  • Two cell layers:
    • ______________ outside
    • ______________ inside
    • ______________ = jelly-like layer in between the ______________ and the ______________ (not a cell layer)
  • Four types of specialized cells
    • Epidermal cells (______________) = Ectoderm
    • Collar Cells (______________) = Endoderm
    • Pore Cells (______________) = Line the Pores (Ostia)
    • Amoeba Cells (______________) = Roam through the ______________
  • Skeleton
    • Skeletons of some sponges are made of ______________ which are produced and secreted by the ______________
    • ______________ come in many shapes and sizes
    • Some ______________ are made out of ______________ (chalk) while others are made out of ______________ (glass)
    • Spicules can be woven together by protein fibres called ______________
    • Most sponges have both ______________ and ______________


III. Feeding:

  • Sponges are filter feeders: – eat primarily ______________
    • ______________ cells (______________) have ______________ which create a steady current of water through the pores (______________) and into the central cavity (______________)
    • As water enters the sponge through the pores (ostia) it passes the ______________ cells (Choanocytes)
    • Particles of food in the water are trapped by ______________ on the ______________ cells (Choanocytes)
    • ______________ cells (Choanocytes) engulf food and digest it
    • Undigested food passes to the ______________ in the ______________
    • The ______________ roam from ______________ cell to ______________ cell collecting nutrients and distributing it to other cells
    • Water exits through a the large hole at the top of the sponge (_________)


DID YOU KNOW!!!: A four inch tall sponge that is half an inch in diameter can filter up to 30 gallons of water a day


  1. Respiration:
  • The water current flowing through the sponge delivers oxygen to the sponge cells.
  • The cells take up the oxygen and release carbon dioxide through simple ______________


  1. Excretion:
  • The water current which flows through the sponge carries waste out of the top of the sponge (______________).


  1. Response:
  • Many sponges protect themselves by producing toxins
  • That make them unpalatable or poisonous to potential predators


VII. Reproduction:

  • Asexual:
    • ______________ – new sponge grows on parent then falls off to create a new animal
    • Sponges can ______________ after being pulled apart
  • Sexual
    • Eggs and sperm (______________) are released into the water
    • Most species are ______________– one individual possesses both eggs and sperm
    • Eggs and sperm are released at different times to assure ______________


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Sponges are the only animals that if broken down to the level of their cells, can miraculously reassemble and resurrect themselves


VIII. Movement:

  • Sponges are ______________ and do not move.
  • However, during sexual reproduction the fertilized egg develops into a free-swimming ______________ larva.       The larva attach to the bottom of the ocean and undergo ______________ to form the adult sponges


  1. Ecological Roles of Sponges:
  • Sponges help clean the water of the oceans
  • They provide food, homes and shelter for other organisms
  • They can form symbiotic relationships with algae
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Taxonomy PLO’s

Biology 11






By the end of this unit, you must be able to:      


  1. apply the Kingdom system of classification to study the diversity of organisms
  • explain how the following principles are used in taxonomy to classify organisms:
    • evolutionary relationships
    • biochemical relationships
    • homologous structures
    • embryological relationships
  • compare characteristics of a prokaryotic cell with those of a eukaryotic cell
  • describe the unifying characteristics of organisms in each of the following kingdoms:
    • Monera
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  • classify selected organisms using the following taxons: kingdom, phylum (and sub-phylum), class, order, family, genus, species
  • apply binomial nomenclature to name selected organisms
  • use classification keys
  • observe organisms to recognize common characteristics
  • demonstrate ethical, responsible, co-operative behaviour
  • show respect for living things



By the end of this unit, you must be able to define the following terms:


o     binomial nomenclature

o     biochemical relationship

o     class

o     embryological relationship

o     eukaryotic cell

o     evolutionary relationship

o     family

o     genus

o     homologous structure

o     kingdom

o     order

o     phylum

o     prokaryotic cell

o     species

o     sub-phylum

o     taxonomy/taxon


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