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Bio 11 Cheat Sheet template

Bio 11 :

 

Outline to make a viable “resource” sheet for Bio 11

 

  • Take this information and put into a landscape format so you have more room to write down information.
  • Use both written and drawn diagrams to explain information.
  • Use colour coding to identify facts.
  • Always use an example to explain concepts in vocab.

 

Good luck!

 

 

Topic Questions Fill in for answer
DNA How would you label a DNA molecule?

 

Look for :

What is a nucleotide?

Where are the sugar and phosphates?

What is a nitrogen base?

Which nitrogen bases link up?

When making a protein from DNA, what is the sequence?

What would a copy of DNA look like for mRNA.

 

If you had a table with tRNA code, how would that transcribe into a sequence of amino acids

If you had a sequence of DNA, how could you make a sequence of mRNA and then using a tRNA table find out the final amino acids in a protein.

 

What are three functions of DNA?

 

Include a copy of DNA drawing with labels
Evolution Homologous structures are the result of what processes in evolution?

What is a vestigial structure?

What are the four types of indirect proof and how would similar genes be used to show evolution?

 

Define: (always have an example)

Convergent evolution

Divergent evolution

Gradualism

Punctuated evolution

Adaptation

Evolution (4)

Genetic drift

Gene flow

Mutation

Natural selection

Speciation

 

Which two scientists published the idea of natural selection?

How why genetic drift, natural selection and gene flow all depend upon mutations.

 

Explain how reproductive isolation is different than geographic isolation.

 

Using a graph, can you explain and give an example of how gradual change is different than punctuated equilibrium?

 

 
Taxonomy What is the correct order (going from least to most specific classification) in biology?

 

In a binomial name, the first and second name signify what terms in Taxonomy?

 

How can you use the classification terminology (KPCOFGS) to see which species may be closer related?

 

 

Vocab (include examples)

·      Heterotrophic

·      Autotropic

·      Eukaryote

·      Prokaryote

·      Taxonomy

·      Monera

·      Fungi

·      Plantae

·      Animalia

 

 
Chapter One review What are the four theories all about?

·      Cell Theory

·      Gene Theory

·      Biogenesis Theory

·      Evolution

 

What is a hypothesis?

·      Is it a concept supported by experiments?

·      A result of deductive reasoning?

·      A tentative explanation of the results of an experiment?

·      A tentative explanation of observed phenomena?

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Test 2 (Taxonomy,Evolution and DNA) Review

Bio 11 DNA, Evolution and Taxonomy Review

 

 

Chapter Topic Question
7 Taxonomy ·      The science of naming organisms is called ___ and was invented by ___/

·      What is the correct order for taxa from least to most specific characteristics?

 

·      In the classification of human’s, the term is “homo sapiens”, what do the two words represent in regards to taxonomy?

 

·      Of the following words: kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus and species, which are closely related

 

·      If two organism’s have the same name in their binomial name, then they are in the same?

 

 

    Organism’s can sometimes be classified by their metabolism or cell structures.

Can you define and give examples for:

·      Prokaryotic

·      Eukaryotic

·      Heterotrophic

·      Autotrophic

 

·      If an organism is unicellular and has no nucleus it could be classified as belonging to which kingdom?

 

 

·      If an organism is 15 microns in diameter, and has chloroplasts, which kingdom would it belong to?

 

    Can you compare:

·      Cell theory

·      Gene theory

·      Biogenesis theory

·      Evolutionary theory

2 and 3 Evolution ·      Traits that make a species better suited for a way of life are called a _____

·      How many definitions are there to describe evolution and what are they?

 

  Direct Proof ·      How could fossils be linked to homologous, analogous and vestigial structures?

 

     
  Indirect Proof ·      How are homologous structures formed?

 

·      How could a vestigial structure be formed and why would snakes have hips?

 

 

·      Can you use specific examples to discuss homologous, analogous and vestigial structures?

 

·      What is the difference between and homologous and an analogous structures?

 

 

·      A wing of a bird and butterfly are what type of structures?

 

·      If the sequence of nitrogen bases in humans is similar to a chimpanzee, what kind of indirect evidence could this be?

 

 

·      If different species show similar traits to suit a specific environment, what type of evolution could this be?

 

3 Evolution mechanisms ·      What is gradualism?

·      What is punctuated equilibrium and what would be an example?

·      How is divergent evolution and natural selection linked to the population of finches in the Galopagos Islands?

 

See worksheets and text DNA ·      What is a nucleotide?

·      What are the four bases found in DNA and which binds to the other?

·      What is different in RNA in reference to type of sugar, bases and structure when comparing it to DNA?

·      What are the three building blocks of DNA?

·      Can you label a drawing of DNA?

·      What is the order of flow of information regarding: proteins, genes, DNA and RNA?

 

  Interpreting sequences of DNA ·      Can you use a genetic code codon, anticodon and t rna table to translate a sequence of code?

 

·      Current definitions include what term and why did Darwin not include this idea in his theory?

 

  Fill in the blank words ·      Genetic drift

·      Genetic pool

·      Gene flow

·      Mutations

·      Non random mating

·      Adaptive radiation

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 Evolution Review

Bio 11 Evolution Review

 

 

Chapter Topic Question
1 Cells ·      Why is a cell considered to be the fundamental unit of life?

 

    ·      If the theory of abiogenesis was true, then spontaneous generations would come from where?

 

  Review cheat sheet

 

Use these questions to make an efficient cheat sheet. Remember..adapt or die!
2 Adaptions ·      What do desirable adaptions allow a species to do?

·      Variations in a population are usually the result of what?

·      What is an inheritable trait?

·      What is a species and how is it formed?

 

  Fossils ·      What two species could be an example of a grassland animals in two different geographic zones that look similar and that show convergence? Think of pouches and antlers.

 

  Indirect proof ·      If chicken embryo’s look like rabbit embryo’s then what is the indirect proof to show these two species may be related?

·      What is the concept of biochemical evidence based upon?

 

    ·      How does sexual reproduction help evolution verses asexual reproduction?

( which makes more diversity/)

·      What is an isolation barrier that cannot be overcome?(see above)

 

3 Evolution mechanisms ·      What is the basic meaning for the term “evolution’?

·      What is “fixity of species”?

·      What was the original source of variation within the English peppered moth?

·      If an inheritable variation produces a structural or physiological adaption, what must that adaption allow the species to do?

 

  Lamarck ·      What are Lamarck’s two laws?

·      What words would be used in a question that would show consistency with Lamarck

·      What is the majour weakness in Lamarck’s theory?

 

  Darwin ·      In Darwin’s theory of evolution, what source of change did Darwin not use nor was he aware of?

·      Why would the word’s “survive and produce” be associated with Darwin’s arguments about the mechanisms for evolution.

·      In Darwin’s theory, what is the force with changes the species trait like the long neck of a giraffe?

·      What is not explained in Darwin’s theory of evolution?

·      In Darwin’s first portion of his argument what concept did he borrow from Malthus?

·      You need to know all six steps of Darwin’s argument and show examples.

·      Can you compare statements that would support or challenge both Darwin and Lamark’s theories of evolution.

 

  Fill in the blank words ·      Adaptive radiation

·      Isolation mechanisms

·      Failure to adapt results in…?

·      Fossil

·      Homologous

·      Analogous

·      Vestigial

·      Convergence

·      Divergence

·      Artificial selection

·      Natural selection

·      Fixity of species

 

  Short Answer Topics 1)   What are four categories of indirect or direct evidence. (Describe and discuss)

 

2)   What are five reasons why fossil records are sometimes difficult to interpret.

 

3)   Using the concept of speciation, isolation mechanisms and Darwin’s theory, explain why there are 14 species of finches in the Galopagos Islands.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 (2017-2018) DNA Nov 22

Bio 11 (2017-2018) DNA                                      Date Nov 22nd

 

 

Last lessons Objective

 

Quiz Feedback

Reference to Online notes

 

Evaluation
Today’s Objectives 1.   Two evaluations

2.   DNA

3.   Protein Synthesis

o

 Work sheet
Topic

Number One

Is anyone reading the notes?

Common mistakes on evaluations.

See reference file for prep for Test One

 

 Search DNA notes at “big picture”
Topic

Number Two

 

DNA

Having a code

 

Evolution, mutations and melanin pigment.

 

Amoeba Sisters on DNA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_POdWsii7AI

 

Ameoba Sisters and DNA replication

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yG-gkgOokA

 

Create a comparative table to compare

a)  DNA verse RNA

b)  Replication verse making protein

c)   Transcription verse translation

 

Compares

·      Transcription to translation

·      Codon to anticodon

·      DNA verses RNA

·      Point mutations verses chromosome alterations

 

The idea of the “Gene” ( One gene to one protein model)

 

Link to gene flow, gene frequency and gene pool (topic for next class)

 

Topic

Number Three

Evolution of the Blank ( Due next week)

 

 

Text book Ref

 

Chapter 2 and 3 and Chapter 5

 

 

You tube Reference Natural Selection Rap

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irrKFXCoi0A

 

Artificial Selection Rap

https://www.brainpickings.org/2013/06/14/the-rap-guide-to-evolution-baba-brinkman/

 

Take Home Message A theory is a form of an objective argument based upon evidence that is usually used to support a hypothesis that has been replicated in a variety of formats.

 

Theories can change with time and they are not facts.

 

To create a logically sound argument, it is wise to examine objective evidence that both supports and argues the premise that you are defending.

 

Do not go into a battle of wits with an unarmed opponent.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 (2017-2018) HW Equation Nov. 20

Key Topic
Gene Frequency Example tongue rolling Test on Friday

Evolution of blank

·      Vocab development

Gene pool

Genetic drift

Allele

Allele frequency

Hetero and homozygous

Phenotype

Genotype

Punnet square

 

·      Allele is a symbol to show a trait (ie tongue rolling) Hardy Weinberg formula
·      Definition for evolution is

A change in gene frequency in a population.

How do you find this out?

·      Tongue rolling explain (use the board)

·      An allele is a letter to signify the presence or lack of presence of a trait.

·      Populations include a variety of traits. Some can be detrimental.

·      The HW equation can be used to predict the affect of frequency within a population.

Show symbol to explain phenotype verse phenotype
·      Basic video

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab8/hardwein.html

 

Big Point

 

The sum of P and q always one to denote the complete population

·      Terminology

P is a letter to denote having the trait.

Q is a letter to denote not having the trait.

·      Punnet squares show probability.

·      (P+Q) squared is

P (squared) +2PQ and Q(squared)

 

 

·      Why use the formula genotype
·      Tricks to solve problem.

a)   format

b)   sample question

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35NTHrA3MVY

 

9:35

 

·      So take home?

·      Vocab and numbers

 

·      Careful about purebred and codominant and incomplete dominance Can you use a punnet square or a work sheet?
Home work

“Germanna : Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium)

Answers on last sheet.

 

What are some practical applications of the HW equilibrium

 

https://prezi.com/kqqm2wrjoy8l/population-genetics-practical-applications-of-hardy-weinberg-equation/

 

Examples

Online rf

https://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=https://i.ytimg.com/vi/xPkOAnK20kw/maxresdefault.jpg&imgrefurl=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v%3DxPkOAnK20kw&h=720&w=1280&tbnid=vvH4NUO13nXaBM:&tbnh=130&tbnw=231&usg=__5MDySOmlvG1F8gP-xkmLkvvk7Kc%3D&vet=10ahUKEwiCyr6N2c3XAhUK8GMKHZIxC14Q9QEILDAA..i&docid=zMAnML87Jh9z1M&client=safari&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiCyr6N2c3XAhUK8GMKHZIxC14Q9QEILDAA

 

 

https://78bbm3rv7ks4b6i8j3cuklc1-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/hardy-weinberg-equilibrium.pdf

 

 

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/her/heredity-and-genetics/v/hardy-weinberg

 

What are the five conditions that create HW in equilibrium?

 

Consider the following

 

If population is in equilibrium, will evolution be occurring?

 

How would allele frequency change if an allele is being favoured?

 

What would be the affect of changes in birth rate, migration,

 

How could HW Equation be linked to Sickle cell anemia

 

Options for learning how to use formula

a)   plug and play

b)   problem solve with partners

c)    work with problem sheet

Take home?

Change in gene frequency

How that occurred?

Integration curve with theory

Affect of population changes linked to HW

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 Quiz Review (Chapter 3)

Chapter Two: Evidence of Evolution Quiz

Topic One: Definitions

  • Adaptive radiation
  • Divergent evolution
  • Convergent evolution
  • Isolation mechanisms
  • Speciation
  • Geographic isolation
  • Ecological isolation
  • Morphological isolation
  • Behavioral isolation
  • Reproductively incompatibility
  • Evolution
  • Extinction

Specific questions about “Adaption”

  1. When is a population considered to be adapted to its environment?
  2. What would make an adaption desirable?
  3. Do all adaptions need to be morphological?
  4. What are four types of adaptions for a duck?

Evolution

Can be defined as:

  • A process by which populations exhibit gradual changes over several generations.
  • Is a theory that best describes how species living today are descendants of species of the past generations?
  • Provides an explanation of how the biological diversity present today

Directed Evidence

  1. The most impressive direct evidence of evolution comes from the study of what biological structures?
  2. What type of soil are fossils found in?
  3. Where would you most likely find fossils?
  4. How are fossils linked to how the earth’s plates move?
  5. What gas allowed more speciation to occur?
  6. Why would the fossil records of reptiles and mollusk be easier to find that flatworms?
  7. How are some chemical ways to figure out how old a fossil is?
  8. What are four problems with using fossils as direct evidence?
  9. What is convergence and divergence and how would that be linked to the Pangaea theory?

Indirect evidence

  1. How could embryos of an organism be linked to how they have evolved?
  2. What are examples of vestigial structures that could be used both for embryonic and morphological indirect evidence?
  3. Homologous and Analogous structures show what sort of evidence?
  4. Why is biochemical evidence said to show “a degree to which most species are related?
  5. What would be the different between biochemical and physiologic indirect evidence?
  6. If two species had the same type of enzymatic protein, what type of evidence would this be?

Speciation and Isolation mechanisms (remember drawing).

  1. What is the distinction between a “mechanism” and a process like “speciation”?
  2. How would populations change with isolation mechanisms?
  3. How could one species of birds look different than a related species found on the other side of a mountain range?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 2017 Oct 16

Bio 11 (17-18)                                     Oct 16th

 

 

Last lessons Objectives

 

 

 

1.   Exam

2.   Taxonomy for class plants

3.   Media board assignments

 

Evaluations
Today’s Objectives a)   Solving the mystery of Barbellus

b)   What is a cladogram?

c)    How to use fossil evidence as direct proof

 

 

Exam

Topic

Number One

Barbellus Activity

Handed out or

http://faculty.montvilleschools.org/bhayes/biology/handouts/evolution_of_barbellus.pdf

 

Step one:

 

Organize by layer of rocks with oldest on the bottom.

 

Step two

Organize by similarity in structure. You can move the organism side ways but not up or down? Why?

 

Step three

 

Identify structures that look similar? For example: limbs, fins, eyes, segments in body and antenna. How would these structures be linked to environment the organism lives in?

 

Create cladogram with aquatic species on x axis and terrestrial

 

As seen via the internet

 

Basic ideas

·      Law of superposition

·      Adaptations

·      Using a cladogram

·      Extinction

·      Diverge and converge

 

Videos

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvC1rs7k8j8

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSICRTjJae0

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yz2z0cg0YDY

 

 

Topic

Number Two

What is a cladogram

http://study.com/academy/lesson/cladogram-definition-examples.html

 

Higher level interpretation from Yale

http://peabody.yale.edu/exhibits/what-cladogram

 

Videos

From Utah

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5aEIvwqoIhI

 

Bozeman

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouZ9zEkxGWg

 

Understanding a phylogenetic tree

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVW8iIEfiZI&t=17s

 

 

Topic

Number Three

 

Preview to next class lab

 

a)   Isolation mechanisms

 

b)   Elephant lab

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jan/31/elephant-teeth-teach-about-evolution

 

https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/mammoth-modern-elephant

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95RKsAR7SW8

 

Each student to do one of each assignment for full marks per term.
Text book Reference

Chapter 1 pg. 38-49

 

Class Notes

Chapter 7 Taxonomy

Chapter 2 Evidence of evolution

 

 

Class hand outs

 

 

You tube Reference How to write Cornell Notes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtW9IyE04OQ

 

 

 

 

Take Home Message  

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11

Bio 11 (17-18)  Date Oct 10 th

 

 

Last lessons Objective

 

 

Classification and Taxonomy

Evaluation
Today’s Objectives  

1.   Direct Evidence (Fossils)

2.   Indirect Evidence (4 types)

3.   Isolation Mechanism and Evolution

 

 
Topic

Number One

 

Question: What organism are these bones from?

Using a skeleton of a limb, how can we observe some evidence of an animals structure and function?

What structures are in the limb?

 

Refer to class notes posted at web blog.

Problems with fossils

Type of soil : Usually sandstone or limestone.

Types of fossils (3)

Petrified

Imprint

In resin

Type of material to fossilize ( hard verses soft)

Amount of fossil remains

Movement of fossils due to predation

Movement due to local geological or environmental   change

Movement due to earthquakes

Movement due to plate tetontics

 

BBC information on fossil records

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_edexcel/common_systems/growthrev1.shtml

 

Sample of some problems with fossils

http://www.evolutionnews.org/2015/01/problem_5_abrup091141.html

 

How things work (Problems with fossils)

http://animals.howstuffworks.com/dinosaurs/dinosaur-bones2.htm

 

 
Topic

Number Two

Question: What are the four indirect proofs of change with time.

“Speaking English..were you in the boat when the boat sank…”

Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

Morphology (Homologous and Analagous)

Biochemical similarities

Physiological similarities

 

How things work (proofs of evolution)

http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/biology-terms/evolution-info2.htm

 

 

Powerpoint on Indirect Evidence

borysndmath.weebly.com/…/5.3_indirect_evidence_of_evolution.ppt

 

 

 
Topic

Number Three

 

Case study of evolution of Horse from Chapter Two

Please note to start with time being the oldest evidence.

 

Plot line

Make best fit line

Calculate the slope of line

 

Next Class Exam

 

Make key for next class

Text book Reference

 

Chapter Two Table
You tube Reference  

Richard Dawkins and proof of evolution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S_LY-LZtJAs

 

Evidence of Evolution made easy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jw0MLJJJbqc

 

 

 
Take Home Message  

There are three constants in life..paradox, change and humour.

 

Find a bone called a Humerus, you will see evidence of change and proof of why bones can be called funny bones..

 

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 (17-18) Oct 5

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date Oct 5th

 

 

Last lessons Objectives

 

 

 

Designing an experiment

Pre test review

Evaluations
Today’s Objectives  

1.   Exam

2.   Taxonomy for class plants

3.   Media board assignments

 

 

Exam

Topic

Number One

Part One of Introduction Evaluation

(Not including taxonomy)

 

 
Topic

Number Two

Room 411 has over 16 plants

You mission is to create a key to find the names of each plant.

You should:

·      Photograph the plants

·      Find a plant key to classify your plant

·      Note all plant structures to classify plants

 
Topic

Number Three

 

Each week we need to update the Room 411 Biognus bulletin board

Categories

 

1)   Media story with photo

2)   Cartoon

3)   Vocabulary for the week

 

For each category, you will need to consider the following

 

1)   Is the work neat and organized

2)   Include a feedback section regarding how it is linked to course content

3)   A critical thinking question and possible answer

 

Each student to do one of each assignment for full marks per term.
Text book Reference

Chapter 1 pg. 38-49

 

Class Notes

Chapter 7 Taxonomy

Chapter 2 Evidence of evolution

 

 

Class hand outs

 

 

 
You tube Reference How to write Cornell Notes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtW9IyE04OQ

 

 

DNA and RNA (Amoeba Sisters)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Elo-zX1k8M

 

 

 

 
Take Home Message  

You are what you eat.

Do not forget Vitamins

 

 
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 Exam Review

Biology 11 Scientific Method, Taxonomy and Five kingdoms Test Review

 

Yes, you are allowed an index card to put anything you want on it.

I would suggest you record the classification of humans first.

 

Taxonomy

 

  • Which comes first in a binomial name, the genus or species?
  • Which word in a binomial name has a capital letter?
  • What is the scientific name for humans?
  • Humans belong to which kingdom?
  • Which phylum do humans belong to?
  • Which class do humans belong to?
  • What family do humans belong to?

 

Five Kingdoms

  • Bacteria and cyanobacteria belong to which kingdom?
  • Molds and mushrooms belong to which kingdom?
  • If you are looking at a proper order going from most general to specific, how
  • Would you arrange the seven groups of living things. (KPCOFGS)?

 

Scientific method

  • Which theory states that organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior?
  • Which theory states that all organisms are composed of cells?
  • Which theory states that all living things have a common ancestor and are adapted to a particular way of life?
  • What is biogenesis and how is it linked to theories of living things?

 

  • Is a hypothesis an a tentative explanation for an observed phenomena or results?
  • What is the proper order for the sequence of a scientific methodology?
  • Can a conclusion of an experiment change?
  • What is the scientific method?
  • Can a hypothesis be proven true?
  • What is the purpose of a control?
  • Do scientist always put their results in the news?
  • What is usually the step of the scientific method?
  • Of all the steps of a scientific method, which has the most evidence for being true?
  • What is the purpose of a hypothesis?
  • If you are experimenting with a particular independent variable, is it important to use the same type of living thing in both the control and test groups? Why?
  • A theory that is accepted by more scientist is often called what?
  • Can you test an ethical or moral decision using the scientific method?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven and have No Comments