" The Big Picture!" by Mr C

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Archive for November, 2015

Biology 12 Nov 26th

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 24th



Last lessons Objective




Cell Biology Exam

Structure and function of DNA

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Three steps of Replication

2.   Three steps of Transcription

3.   Three steps of Translation



Number One


This is part one of your study guide

On a legal piece of paper either staple or draw the three steps of replication


Step one


Unwind the DNA

·      Which enzyme is involved in unwinding the DNA?

·      Which enzyme “unzips” the DNA?

·      Where is this process occurring?

·      What building blocks are required?

·      What chemical bonds are being broken

·      How is the supercoiled molecule unwound?

·      What is the role of 5 to 3 ends of DNA?


Step Two

Making a copy of nucleotide chain

·      What is the job of rna primase?

·      What is the role of a primer

·      What is the difference between the leading strand and the lagging strand?

·      Which enzyme is involved?

·      What chemical bonds are being made?

·      Is there a possibility for error and what would that error be called?

·      Are nucleotides added in a particular fashion?

Step Three

Stick the nucleotides together and prepare of cell division

·      Which enzyme is involved?

·      What chemical bonds are being made?

·      What is a Okazak fragment?

·      What is different in binding of nucleotides when you compare leading strand to lagging strand?

·      Are there different types of primase? Why?

·      After replication, what is the “ploidy

·      What is the role of replication and how is it linked to the functions of DNA?


Online references notes


Basic Replication



Replication with leading and lagging



Replication and enzymes (most thorough)





Number Two


Steps of Protein Synthesis


Two steps:

Transcription   (making rna in nucleus)

Translation     (making protein in cytoplasm)


Consider the following:

·      Transcription is similar to replication in that you are following a similar series of step to make a copy of the DNA sequence

·      Translation is taking a single strand of RNA and translating that code so that a protein can be made with all amino acids linked in a specific order.


Steps of Transcription








The basics of transcription



More than basics of transcription




Quiz on transcription





Number Three

Step of Translation



Focus Questions:

·      What genetic material is involved in this process?

·      Where is it occurring?

·      What molecule has the code for Protein?

·      What protein structure helps to translate the sequence?

·      What genetic material transports amino acids?

·      Is there a code to initiate the process of translation?



Focus questions:

·      What protein structures are being used to combine amino acids.

·      Is there a code to start and stop protein elongation?




Spark Notes




Study com with video and quiz


Carleton U Microbellife page







Text book Reference


Chapter 25
You tube Reference  


Take Home Message The magic number is 3.

Unwind, copy, rewind for Replication

Initiate, Elongate,Terminate for protein synthesis


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 Nov 24 Notes

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 24 th



Last lessons Objective


Test 2 and review for evolution


Today’s Objectives 1.   Virus “alive or not”?

2.   Virus myths and pandemics

3.   Introduction to what being “infected” means and virus “cycles”.


 Notes and Work sheets

Number One

Is a virus alive?

What are the structures of viruses?

How does a virus “adapt”?


Looking at my virus top ten notes, notice five ways to debate that a virus may or may not be alive.


While it does show some similar activities of life, a virus is not a cellular and self maintained structure.


The riddle is..how did a virus gain DNA or RNA. In fact, it is truly the first “chicken verses egg” story.


Scientific American



Could Viruses have “fertilized” the earth?



Are viruses alive?


Are viruses alive?



Virus alive or not..debate!



Virus evolution



Khan Academy Notes on Virus



Your first mission..


Find my virus notes and comparative table for alive or not alive.

·      Using the above links, confirm or add new facts in the debate of whether a virus is alive or not.

·      Yes..this is for marks!

 Answer Questions

Number Two

How do we classify a “non living thing” and what are some myths about viruses?


The old system say that viruses can be classified by the host that they infect ..


The new system is more complex!








From these links,

1.   How has the classification of viruses changed with the increased information on viruses?

2.   Can viruses evolve?

3.   Why do standard methods of taxonomy not work for virus?

4.   What evidence for viruses being alive are being used related to their classification?


Looking up myths about viruses and the first thing you find is computer viruses!

Which came first the actual biological virus or computer viruses is quite obvious.


Myths about biological virus and bacteria





Modern media and virus myths



More media and myths



Medicine and viruses



History and pandemics






zombie apocalypse





Critical thinking challenge

1.   Is the zombie virus a real threat?

2.   Can you get a virus by being in a room that an infected person has been in?

3.   Is Ebola the worst virus that has evolved on earth?

4.   Are all viruses fatal?

5.   Can getting sick with a virus actually help you?

6.   Why have myth about viruses more common now than in the past?



Number Three

What is an “infection” and virus infective cycles



With all online evidence..make sure to check your source


















Virus cycles
















1.   Can you explain why some infective viruses are not fatal?

2.   Can you describe an example of an example of latent cycle?

3.   Can you draw a lytic cycle?

4.   Why do all “life cycles” of virus include a bacteriophage?

5.   What is a bacteriophage and how is it structure linked to how and who it infects?

6.   What is an example of a mutagenic cycle?

7.   How is a mutagen similar or different than a flu virus?

8.   What is an example of a retrovirus and why is it unique?



Evolution of the Blank

Sign up for project, which will be due on the Monday after next week.

Please touch base with Mr. C to confirm validity of doing project



Text book Ref


Chapter 7 (Section on Virus)



You tube Reference  

Are viruses alive








How are viruses classified?





Media and virus myths









Virus infective cycles


Lysogenic and latent cycle



Virus life cycle



Amoeba sisters information on viruses




“I am a virus” Virus Rap song



How a virus changed the world “webby awarded”



Mojo top ten pandemics



Virus verses Bacteria Infections








Take Home Message A virus is a biological paradox!

·      It is both alive and not alive.

·      It is both lethal and yet can be linked to evolution. You take antibiotics for bacteria yet they are of no use for viruses.

Truth is stranger than fiction.






posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 12 Nov 20th Lesson

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                                 Date: Dec 20th


Last lessons Objective


Class Notes or Information


1.   Osmosis Lab Quiz and DNA

2.   DNA structure

3.   DNA function



Today’s Objective 1.   Organelle and Membrane Exam

2.   Review DNA Structure and Function

3.   DNA Replication



Hope it was a pleasant experience!





Key Points

1.   “DNA is a molecule that has a structure that allows both for integrity and diversity”. Can you explain why?

2.   “DNA” is a super coiled molecule” Can you explain why?

3.   “Structure of DNA is suited to it’s three primary functions” Can you explain why?




DNA Replication

Visualizing DNA Replication



1.   To make a “replica” is to make an exact copy. Here are some question to focus your attention.

·      When and why does a cell have to make a copy of it’s DNA?

·      What are the specific steps of DNA replication?

·      What protein structures are involved with insuring that this process occurs without error?

·      When could an error occur with DNA code sequence?

·      What building blocks are required for replication to occur?

Your mission:

Create a flow chart

The flow chart should include:

a)   each step of replication

b)   each protein (enzyme) and label it’s function

c)    A diagram showing what is occurring on the strand of DNA

d)   Label what chemical bonds are broken

e)   Label what chemical bonds are made

f)     You can cut and paste information from net if you show where information is from.

Text Ref  

Mader “Inquiry to life” Chapter 24 (section 24.1)


You tube DNA Replication



Amoeba Sisters on DNA and replication


Crash course on DNA and replication



Bozeman Video



Class Notes  

DNA Notes

Spark Notes


Lecture on DNA and Replication


Teacher “Mrs McComas” DNA Notes




Take Home msg



Next Class we will review Flow Charts..

Yes..this is for marks!

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 Top Ten Virus Question

Mr. C’s Top Ten Questions About Virus


Question One: Are Virus living things?



Non living Characteristics Living Characteristics
they do not respire they do have DNA or RNA
there is no cellular structure they do have proteins and enzymes
they do not grow they have the potential to make other cells make copies of themselves, this is more like duplication than reproduction
they can be crystallised due to harsh environments virus show diversity associated with the hosts they infect
they cannot reproduce on their own * this is a great table for a test question….


Question Two: What are virus and where did they come from?


  • Virus may be linked to the original entity of life as a noncellular ancestor of cells
  • Their means of existence may imply that they were once primitive organisms that loss cell structures in order to assist parasitic lifestyle.
  • The genetic material within a virus is only a fragment of an original genome.


Question Three:

What is the structure of a virus and how is it associated with its lifestyle.

  • Most virus are composed of a protein coat which surrounds a small fragment of DNA or RNA.
  • Most virus are only visible with electron microscopes ranging in size from .015 to .45 microns.
  • Some of the protein coats are specialised for the host that the virus infects.
  • The shape of the protein coat may vary from spherical shapes to bacteriophage which have additional structures to add attachment to host.
  • Shapes are usually spherical, rod shaped or tadpole shaped.


Question Four: How are virus classified?

  • Virus are classified by the host they infect
  • Plant virus: ( example tobacco mosaic virus)
  • Animal ( by class: Aves : Bird, Insecta: insects) virus
  • Bacteria virus or Bacterio phage


Question Five: How are virus transmitted?

  • In plants: virus can be transmitted from contact with insects, direct contact between plant seeds, leaves or stems.


  • In animals: virus can be transmitted from coughing, sneezing, talking, direct contact and insects.


Question Six: How do virus infect host

A general infection follows the following pattern.

  1. The virus comes in contact with host cell and attaches to host cell.
  2. Viral Protein coat is either removed after absorption by host or virus injects nucleic material into host.
  3. Viral DNA or RNA is replicated by the host cell.
  4. Replicated viral DNA or RNA is translated into proteins for viral enzymes and protein coat.
  5. New virus are assembled within host cell from replicated and translated material.
  6. Virus either remain in host or host cell breaks due to too many virus within cell.


Specialised infections:

Bacteriophage: Virus that infect bacteria

In this type of infection there is the possibility of two events

  1. a) A lytic cycle
  1. Virus attaches to host bacteria, an enzyme eats away the host’s cell wall and   viral nucleic material is injected into host
  2. Viral nucleic material is incorporated into host nucleic material
  3. Viral nucleic material begins to replicate and translate its code, this takes over the bacteria normal cellular functions.
  4. As many as 100 or more copies of the original virus are made by host bacteria
  5. The host bacteria burst and virus is release to the environment. The word lytic comes from the Latin which means to burst open


  1. b) A lysogenic cycle.

Much like the lytic cycle the host bacteria is infected by the virus, however lyses of the bacteria does not happen immediately. Bursting of the cell only occurs when the bacteria become weakened or there is a change in the environment.



Retrovirus Infections:

  • A retrovirus is a RNA virus which infects the host in a unique fashion.
  • The viral RNA serves as a template for the host cell to make a segment of DNA.
  • This DNA is then encoded into the host’s genetic material.
  • The cell does not die but changes due to the new encoded material.
  • The mechanisms of this type of infection are still being researched.

Question Seven: Are all infections the same?

The answer is no. There are at least three possible outcomes from an infection:

Results of viral infection can be:

  1. A virulent infection:
  • This is when the virus causes a lytic cycle and the host cell dies


  1. A latent infection:
  • This is when the virus either becomes part of host genome or remains dormant until changes in host cell and or external environment.


  1. Tumour producing infection:
  • This is when the host cell is not destroyed but mutated causing the host cell to divide and produce cluster of cells that have changed from the original cell. If these cells remain dormant they are said to be benign and show themselves as a wart or tumour), if these cells become mobile, they are said to be malignant.


Question Eight: What diseases are caused by viral infections?

  • Some common viral infections are:

viral pneumonia,            the common cold,   influenza,       mumps,         measles, German measles         polio                           shingles      chickenpox    smallpox, AIDS virus                       hepatitis                    warts              yellow fever   cold sores hoof and mouth disease      Ebstein Barr virus                mosiacs in plants


  • May be associated with some cancers, leukaemia’s, and autoimmune disorders
  • Some lethal viruses: Ebola (95% fatality rate)
  • Most publicised virus: HIV



Question Nine: Is there a way to treat or cure viral infections?

  • One of the first methods of preventing infection by virus was done by the Chinese, who rubbed other individuals with skin scabs from those individuals who survived a viral infection such as small pox.
  • Edward Jenner, created a process called vaccination ( from the Latin origin vaca for cow : another famous cow story!) by exposing individuals to cowpox virus, which he noted prevented them from being infected from a more virulent virus for small pox.
  • It is useless to treat a viral infection with antibiotics however people treated with a killed strain of virus or viral proteins may create their own antibodies to attack onto viral proteins.


Question Ten: How were virus discovered?


  • Discovery of virus were initially related to nature of infection of hosts
  • Actual viral material viral material was not purified until 1933 by Stanley. This particular material was crystallise tobacco mosaic.
  • Identification of viruses has improved with the increased efficiency of electron microscopes.
  • Because viral DNA/RNA interacts with host nucleic material, viruses are continue to change and evolve.


If you have any further questions you wish to explore

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Microbio,Microbio and have No Comments

Science 10 Nov 19th

Science 10 Lesson Outline                            Date: Nov 19th


Last lessons Objectives


Pre Test for exam

Pre Test review of results


Acceleration Worksheet

Today’s Objective  

1.   Intro to Chemistry

2.   Atom Structure

3.   Model of Atom

4.   Illustrating action of atoms bonding



Number One

Put simply

Physics is about examining forces, energy and motion between objects. It attempts to examine how things interact from a mathematical point of view. It explores the diversity of energy in motion (kinetic) and stored (potential).


Chemistry is about exploring how individual atoms have their own unique properties and how these properties help to explain how groups of may behave.


An atom is a self contained moving object with a center, called the nucleus and a cloud of electrons that surround that nucleus.


Each atom can provide and or store energy.


The structure of an atom influences how it interacts with other atoms.


Many models of the atom are misleading. Lets explore why..

(see list below)





Number Two

Text book 4.1

Atomic structure

Using the periodic table to explore atomic structure






Properties of elements and the periodic table



Using Venn diagrams to compare similarity and difference



How the periodic table works



tour of the periodic table



Compare concepts

·      Atomic mass verses atomic number

·      Family verses period

·      Proton verses neutron and electron

·      Nucleus and orbital



Number Three

Will continue next class


Applying parts of an atom to a working model: The Bohr Model

How to draw a Bohr Model



Concept of a Bohr Model



Concept to compare

·      Orbital verses valence




Topic Four For the next class


Illustrating the structure of an atom when it combines with another atom: The Lewis Model


Wiki info on the Lewis Model



Bozeman video



Ionic Bond



key term is transferring electrons


Covalent Bond



Comparing ionic to covalent



Combining Atomic theory with how atoms bond

The idea of “electron glue”

When atoms combine, electrons are moving.

Concept to compare

·      ionic verses covalent bond





All work up to and including bohr model



Home work
Other stuff! These are not true statements, can you explain why?

·      Only one model of the atom is correct.

·  The electrons in an atom orbit its nucleus like planets in our solar system orbit the sun

·  Electron clouds are pictures of electrons in their orbits.

·  The electron cloud is like a rain cloud, with electrons inside of it like drops of water.

·  An electron cloud has electrons in it, but the cloud itself is made of some other material.

·  Hydrogen is a typical atom.

·  Electrons are larger than protons.

·  Electrons and protons are the only fundamental particles.

·  The current model of the atom is the right model.

·  Atoms can disappear after time.

·  Atoms are microscopic versions of elements—hard or soft, liquid or gas, and so forth.

·  Atoms can be seen with a microscope.

·  Atoms move, so they are alive.

·  An electron shell is hard, like an eggshell.

·  Atoms “own” the electrons in their orbits.


Next Class Chemistry Rap https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xaoy94mx2EU


Deadline for egg drop. Thursday of next week.

You need to have egg not break!

Comic Assignment: Due 20th..Friday.

Marks deducted if late.

Exam for Physics..Monday 23rd

Take Home Message A proton and a neutron were walking down the street. The proton says, “Stop, I dropped an electron. Help me look for it.” The neutron asks, “Are you sure?” The proton replies, “Yes, I’m positive.”

A neutron walks into a restaurant and orders a couple of cokes. As she is about to leave, she asks the waiter how much she owes.  The waiter replies, “For you, No Charge!!!”



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10,Science Ten Lessons and have No Comments

Biology 11 Nov 18th

Biology 11 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 18 th



Last lessons Objective


DNA, RNA and protein synthesis


Today’s Objectives 1.   Taxonomy’s patterns

2.   Evolution’s patterns

3.   Using DNA to link Taxonomy and Evolution


 Work sheet

Number One

Using mRNA to make a code

The role of protein synthesis is to make proteins.

Proteins are made from having or not having the code in DNA. For simplification, this is referred to as “a gene”


It is currently a theory that for each gene there is a protein.


The role of genetics in evolution became clearer when Hardy and Weinberg showed that the frequency of a particular allele or trait in a population influenced how that population could evolve. (Chapter 6)


 Lab due at end of the week

Number Two


Taxonomy can be seen as a means to take the diversity of life and create an orderly system based upon classification.


This system came about to have a universal means to classify living things using a language that was not subject to change.


Using a dichotomous key, a series of yes or no questions allows the classifier to go from a whole group to specific genus and species.


A cladogram or family tree can show both taxonomy and evolutionary trends


To classify we go from:

Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus and Species




A species includes the genus that it came from.


Evolution looks at how species are formed and the mechanisms that allow genetic information to be displayed.


In chapter six, we note that genetic material influences how traits can be displayed within a population.


Genetic information can flow between populationsn.


A population has a “gene pool”


Traits within a population can shift and evolution can select traits, which causes gene frequency to “drift” from one frequency of alleles to a different value.




Number Three

Types of Cells


Prokaryotic: Pre chromosome cells (Monera)

Eukaryotic: True cells with chromosomes and membrane bound organelles.


While the actually origins of life on the planet is still a theoretical idea, we can now use genetic traits and dna to show an indirect proof of how life has evolved.


All species lead back to a universal ancestor cell. This cell was probably prokaryotic.


Family trees and cladograms attempt to trace the lineage of how this ancestor cell changed with time.


Watch taxonomy video!


We now have three “domains” verses kingdoms to show both a genetic and taxonomical history of living things on earth.


Bacteria, Archea and Eukaryea are the three domains.


This form of classification helps to clear up a previous taxonomical system that had no information on genetics and gene interactions. It also considers the metabolism of simple prokaryotic cells that used to be classed simply as monera.




Evolution of the Blank

Sign up for project, which will be due on the Monday after next week.

Please touch base with Mr. C to confirm validity of doing project



Text book Ref


Chapter 2 and 3 and Chapter 6



You tube Reference Evolution and DNA




Taxonomy and life on earth



DNA, Genetics and evolution




Take Home Message Taxonomy is a way to go from diversity and go to a specific genus and species.


Evolution attempt to understand the origin of a species and how species can diverge or converge.


DNA is the universal “language” of all living things. It is a molecule that can change with time and it can influence the mechanisms of evolutionary change


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 12 Lesson Nov 18th

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 16 th



Last lessons Objective




Dialysis Lab and Membrane quiz

Today’s Objectives 1.   Dialysis lab Quiz

2.   DNA structure

3.   DNA function



Number One


Feedback on experiments

·      It is wise to listen to the criteria of lab

·      “if you are going to do a job, you might as well do it right…or learn from doing it wrong.


Lab Quiz

Number Two


DNA (the super coiled molecule) Power point


Wiki reference



What do we mean by 3 and 5 end of DNA




visualizing DNA and coiling of DNA




Understanding the properties of DNA




1.    You should be able to remember how many steps and what protein structures are involved in making a chromosome

2.    You should know the structure of a nucleotide.

3.    You should know the significance of covalent and ionic or hydrogen bonds in DNA

4.    You should know the significance of a 5 and 3 end of DNA

5.    You should be able to explain the pros and cons of having DNA as a super coiled molecule



Number Three

DNA ( function of DNA) Power point


The Functions of DNA



Three functions of DNA



1 Archival molecule


2 Synthesis of protein


3 Molecule linked to change within Evolution




You should start learning “the bits” so that you can explain the steps of


a)   Replication (next class after exam)



b)   Protein Synthesis (next class after exam)

Wikigeek reference



Video about protein synthesis




Key points


·      Discussions about DNA imply that you have learned both the structure and function of the DNA molecule.



·      Statement “DNA can function both coiled and uncoiled”. How do you explain this statement?


Tex book Ref


Test on Chapter on Cell Biology and Chapter on Cell Membranes.


You tube Listed within sections


Take Home Message ·      The code of life is an example a supercoiled molecule that can make copies of it’s self and also uncoil to reveal code to make protein.


·      DNA is still a molecule with it’s own mysteries that are still be learned.

Complete lab for osmosis is due

Next Friday

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Science 10 and have No Comments

Biology 11 DNA,Taxonomy and Evolution Review

Taxonomy, Evolution and DNA Review


1.   What are the building blocks of DNA?

2.   How is DNA similar and different from RNA?

3.   What is a “nucleotide”?

4.   How do nucleic acid base pairs match up?

5.   Which nucleic acid base is not found in DNA?

6.   What is the sequence of converting information from DNA to a protein?


The code of a strand of DNA can be “transcribed” and “translated”

7.   What does transcribe mean?

8.   How do you translate the DNA code?

9.   What is a “triplet”?

10.        What is a complementary strand?

11.        Can you translate a strand of mRNA given a table that includes mRNA triplets? (See worksheet)



1.   What is the distinction between direct and indirect proof?

2.   How is convergent and divergent evolution linked to types of proof of evolution?

3.   How can fossils be linked both to gradual and punctuated rates of changes of evolution?

4.   What is a trait from Darwin or Lamarcks point of view?

5.   How are traits linked to populations and gene frequency?

6.   What is speciation and how is it linked to isolation mechanisms?

7.   What is  the significance of gentic drift, gene flow, and non random mating linked to evolution ( Clue please look at chapter on DNA and Evolution)


Chapter Three Quiz feedback


1)   Darwin verse Lamarack

·      Lamarack proposed a law of use and disuse

·      Lamarack proposed that a trait produced by use and disuse was an acquired characteristic

·      The example of the length of the giraffes neck  was used to show that the length got longer to access food.

·      The individual organism changes due environmental needs



In comparison


·      Darwin proposed that changes in living things was due to a process which he called natural selection

·      Like farmers select specific traits in agriculture, Darwin said that “Nature” was selecting the traits in living things in the wild. He referred to the selection by humans as call “Artificial selection” and the selection of traits by nature as “natural selection”.

·      Darwin used a two part premise to explain how nature selected a trait

·      His first “proof” was to show that there was some mechanism that was keeping populations from over populating. Using economist Malthus’s ideas, he proposed that populations do not over populate due to “a struggle for existence”. Put simply, population size was being affected by something.

·      His second “proof” was to state that within any population of species, there is a wide range of traits. He did not know the source of these traits but he did notice a diversity in traits. He noted that organisms with survived and were able to pass these traits on were those organism that had a trait that  was able to adapt to what was occurring in the natural environment. This idea of competition and survival of the fittest was similarly proposed by Wallace who spoke about traits allow species to compete and survive and then pass along traits.

·      Put simply, Darwin said that species do not over populate because there is something limiting that growth, The factor that seemed to limit growth was a Natural Selection of traits that allowed the species to survive and pass those traits onto the next generation. The key point is…nature..the environment is doing the selection.


Using the Galpagos Islands and Finches


So here is how the story should go…


A population of original finches arrives at a new location. In this case an island.

The island is able to support the population both with food, water, and habitat. So the population is able to survive, reproduce and grow. In addition, there are no predators to limit the growth of the population. So the population grows but does not over populate. So there must be a reason why.


Within this population is a diversity in shapes of beaks. Those birds with beaks that are able to eat the food on that island are more likely to survive. Nature is selecting a specific trait. Those who do not have that trait migrated. This introduces the idea of “gene flow” (yes..this is on the test!!!)..something Darwin did not know about.


Those birds who did not have the right beak shape for a specific island could fly to another island. Again..migration and gene flow. On the new island was a different habitat. The species which had a trait that allowed the species to survive and populate on the new island was now being selected by a natural source. Aha..natural selection!


What are the implications of this statement?

The reason why things change with time is governed by a mechanism in which nature is doing the selection. The organism that has the trait that allows it to adapt to a small change in the environment will pass that trait to the next  generation. Notice that two key words are being used: survive and adapt.


DNA and Darwin and Lamarck


The theory of Natural Selection was able to propose a feasible explanation as to how and why species change with time. It proposed that “nature” was selecting traits that improved the chance for survival and therefore reproduction.


The idea of a characteristic or a trait was a means to show an adaptation had occurred. The actual source of that adaptation was hidden until the mechanisms of how DNA was discovered.


Mutations are a change in the sequence of nucleic bases within DNA. Mutations can also occur due to missing or extra chromosomes or sequences of DNA changing. Put simply..the source of variation is within the code of DNA.


An example of a favoured mutation is the change in colour of English peppered Moths.  When the DNA, which mutated created a black pigmented Moth, the population of black moths increased when predators could not find the moth on dark, charcoal coated trees. When the soot in the air decreased due to cleaner burning of coal, the trees now could show their natural white colour. Those moths that had not adopted the changed DNA were able to now increase their population.

This change in expression of traits lead to a more definitive definition of evolution within biology in respect to a change in allele frequency within a population.



Evidence, mechanisms, rates of change and forming new species.


1.   If a population is isolated due to morphology, geography, behavior or ecology it is forming a new species due to an isolation mechanism. Notice that there is now a ..that in singular ..species being formed. So we notice that isolation mechanism is linked to the term speciation.

2.   If one species crosses the isolation mechansim, then a new species can be formed. If that product of reproduction is not able to reproduce, it is some times called a hybrid. A hybrid is something new due to mixing two species.

3.   Darwin proposed that Nature is selecting traits and this is what is going on to create new species. He did not come up with the term “adaptive radiation”.

4.   After the mechanism of how DNA works was discovered and explored, there was now a valid source to explain things like mutations and traits. It has been proposed  that a specific segment of DNA is responsible for making a specific protein. This segment has been called “a gene” and the theory is that for one gene there is a specific protein. Introducing this idea into evolution, now we can talk about Gene Flow, Gene Pool, Genetic Drift all linking to a change in populations due to the presence or lack of genetic material.

5.   The idea of a gene is now being challenged because it has been discovered that several pieces of DNA code may be involved in making a protein. It is also being proposed that expression of sequences of DNA can also be regulated. So..once again..the reason why things change with time is a theory and subject to scientific inquiry.


Rates of change


There are several examples where Darwin’s mechanism also showed a gradual change in time. This created a group of folks who proposed that things change gradually and the theory put forth was called Gradualism.


In 1972, a new theory was proposed to explain gaps in fossil records and quick changes in evolution. The idea was that a population quickly adapts to adapt and then reaches equilibrium. Think about cell phones and you get the idea real fast. One product sets the pace and others hurry to catch up. If you graph this rapid change you have a line with a large slope followed by a flat horizontal line where there is equilibrium.


Mention equilibrium and the physicist and chemist get all excited. Some physics folks suggested that energy within the system was being used up to a point where there was none left for those who could adapt. Chemist jumped for joy and started getting involved with metabolic rates, equilibrium constants and meanwhile, the biologist knew that all things are connected. Lets think of this as the Three Bear Theorem. Too hot, too cold and then..just right.


Now the question is…is anyone reading these notes. It is a dark and stormy afternoon in Vancouver. The heat has been turned off in my room. I am wearing a sweatshirt and hidden underneath it is  a snoopy t shirt that says “dazed and confused”. I am exhausted, cold and my head is full of phlegm. It is Friday and the class before me is taking a physics pre test. A population of fruit flies is now invading my room and some inspired student decided to  submerge an electric heating element in one of my fish tanks. Five fish gave their lives two days after remembrance day. Poppies do not grow in aquariums. As predicted, several students did not read my notes and so their quiz marks are less than stellar. If any one can remember what the t shirt I am wearing says, then I will give bonus marks on the next evaluation.






Vancouver School Board




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posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Evolution and have No Comments

Biology 12 Nov 12 Lesson

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 12 th



Last lessons Objective




Sweet potato lab

Today’s Objectives 1.   Finish collecting data for lab

2.   Review sheet for quiz on Monday

3.   Visualizing the affects of a cell membrane in regards to cell metabolism


Number One


So what examples of labs are online?


Cell membranes and metabolism



Cell physiology





Number Two

Prep for Inquiry based osmosis lab

You will be given the following materials

·      Dialysis tubing

·      3 Colour coded unknown solutions

·      1 clear solution of sugar water

·      string to tie of dialysis tubing

·      Three jars to put dialysis tube into

·      Graduated cylinder


These labs may help you with your experimental design


Nice clarification of diffusion and osmosis



From biology junction



An abstract on permeablility




You tube tips for dialysis tubing



You will need to prep the lab and have prepared beginning to lab (objective, materials and procedure) for Wednesday class.


Lab Quiz on Wednesday will include practical questions about semipermeable and selectively permeable membranes.



Number Three

Practice Tests and Quizzes


Cell Membranes








Inquiry into life



Cliff notes



Advice on writing up a lab



Cell Organelles


Biology Corner






Text book Reference


Chapter on Cell Biology and Chapter on Cell Membranes.

It is wise to do review questions at the end of each chapter.

Remember to study concepts as pairs (example)

Osmosis and diffusion

Active and passive transport

Semi and selectively permeable

Endo and exo cytosis


You tube Reference Cell Membranes and function



Active transport (study.com)





Sample questions on osmosis




Simple quiz



Diffusion quiz




Take Home Message ·      As we prepare for the end of the term recall the three steps to understanding a biological concept.

a)   Learn the vocabulary both as a definition and an example

b)   Link the concept to an active example. The operative term is “how”. For example how does the cell membrane allow fats to be absorbed?

c)    Now that you have learned “the bits” and what they do, what happens if they do not work? Example: A new anticancer drug stops cancer cells from actively absorbing glucose, what would occur in the cell membrane and what organelles may be affected?

Complete lab due Next Friday


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Biology 11 Chapter 3 Review

Chapter Three Quiz Review….


Some primary vocabulary terms…


Concept Key ideas
punctuated equilibrium “rapid change” in morphology of that actually occurs over a period of time but appears as a jump in evolutionary change.
speciation formation of new species from pre-existing species

multiplication of species

hybrid result of two separate species, may result in offspring that cannot reproduce
acquired characteristic  
struggle for existance  
species group of interbreeding organisms which have been genetically separated
fixity of species  
fossil imprint of a formerly living organism. May be intake bone structure.
natural selection  
artificial selection  
divergence separation of species by isolating mechanisms, which causes species to genetically separate from each other.


Comparing Lamarck to Darwin


  Lamarck Darwin
Source of Change Brought about by environment  
Variablility and traits Acquired characteristics are inherited based upon use and disuse of structures  
Role of Genes If theory was correct then genes could be influenced by what the organism does  
Origin and source of variation Not known Not known
Source of insights observation of morphological features Observing


diversity amongst species

observing domestic species

  Organisms are able to adapt to their environment when they inherit variations that have been developed by their parents through use and disuse Six Development ideas



struggle for existance

species diversity

observation of selected traits

natural selection


Darwin and the Galapagos Islands…


Focus your explaination of diversity amongs species by considering…


  1. What were orgin of species on the Island?
  2. How did isolation mechanisms cause species to change?
  • consider all the options
  • how is genetic material changed or kept appart?
  1. How would Darwin’s six principles be used to explain how a species could change?
  2. What observations where used to help Darwin create an argument for:
  • Struggle for existence
  • Competition
  • Diversity within a species
  • Traits that allowed a species to survive.



Rates of change




What case studies show a steady change in adaption?


Punctuated Equilibrium


What species showed a rapid change then equilibrium in an in class lab?



How is adaptive radiation different to Darwin and Lamarack’s ideas?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments