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Bio 11 SS Test 8 Review questions

Test 8 Molusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata Review


  1. What is the name of the principal body cavity of molluscs? (Think about movies scenes)
  2. Lit 3 benefits of the arthropod exoskeleton (3 marks)
  3. Your friend claims a spider dropped down from the ceiling and ate a piece of her apple. Give two reasons why this is not possible. (2 reasons)
  4. List and explain three ways that a squid is adapted for a predatory lifestyle (3 reasons)
  5. Describe how a sea star uses its water vascular system in feeding.
  6. Which phylum do Clams, snails, sea slugs, and octopi belong?
  7. Which invertebrate animals does NOT have a true coelom?
  8. What are of the features of molluscs?
  9. What characteristics do all arthropods have?
  10. Sometimes you can find clamshells with small round holes in them on the beach. The hole was made by a sea snail. Which body part did the sea snail use to make the hole?
  11. Can you match structures with  animal phylla ? Can you identify which structures do NOT belong to the same group as the others?
  12. Malpighian tubules are found in which phylum?
  13. Malpighian tubules are part of which organ system?
  14. Can you match common names for Mollusca, Arthropoda and Echinodermata?
  15. Spiders belong to which taxonomical class?
  16. Which class do snails belong to?
  17. Spiracles and trachea are found in the grasshopper’s
  18. What is the function of Arthropod blood
  19. An organ or structure of the female grasshopper, used to form short tunnels to lay egg in is called?
  20. Which phylum contains the most intelligent invertebrates?
  21. What are common structures shared by both Echinodermata and Arthropoda?
  22. What body part does a spider use to breathe?
  23. Do starfish have a carapace?
  24. Can you label all the structures on a squid diagram?
  25. What structure do land snails use to obtain oxygen?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Mollusca and have No Comments

Molusca and Arthropoda Study guide

Molusca and Arthropoda Study Guide:



Activity of life Molusca Arthropoda
Traits ·      What are five traits for molusca and which is found in all molusca

·      What is a trait that both molusca and arthropods have yet round worms do not have?

·      What are 8 traits shared by all arthropoda?


·      What is a shared structure or structures that arthropoda and molusca share?


Respiration ·      What are the breathing structures in molusca? ·      What are three organs and strategies for arthropods
Regulation ·      Which molusca has the most cephalization?

·      What are three ways that a molusca can adapt and protect themselves?


·      What are three types of insect learning?
Reproduction ·      Are molusca hermaphrodite or single sex?

·      Why would a left twisting snail find it hard to reproduce?

·      What structures to squids have for reproduction?



Why are larvae found in different habitat than adults?


Why do arthropods have such unique mating rituals?

Excretion ·      Why does nitrogen waste change from ammonia or uric acid to urea in arthropods and molusca ·      Where does excretory waste go in a grasshopper
Nutrition ·      What are the three ways that molusca can get food?

·      What is a unique rasping structure in gastropods?

·      How could a sea snail suck the visceral mass out of a clam?

·      What structures do squids have to digest food?

What do grasshoppers eat that makes their blood green and sweat?


Why do insects need to eat so much energy?


Growth ·      How is a shell made and from what tissue?

·      What is a pearl?

·      How are molusca valueable to humans (3 ways)?

·      How could squids get to be so big?

·      What is “molting” and why is it dangerous?

·      What are the three types of metamorphosis and what are creatures called for complete metamorphosis?

·      What are 2 disadvantages for molting?

Transport ·      Do molusca have open or closed circulatory systems? ·      What are 4 reasons that the grasshoppers circulatory system is unique?
Synthesis ·      What is “super glue” and which molusca is it found in? Which sex makes a spider’s web?


Feature Creature Squid


Insects and grasshopper
  Can you label a diagram of a squid? (exterior and interior)


Can you label a diagram of a grasshopper? (internal and exterior)


Vocab Gladius  
  Book lung  
Check which phylum features are found. Visceral mass  
Think about structure and function. Compound eye  
  ·      Simple eye  
  ·      Pinchers  
  ·      Malpigian tubules  
  ·      Ovipositor  
  ·      Thorax  
  ·      Metathorax  
  ·      Coxa  
  ·      Spiracles  
  ·      Air sacs  
  ·      Gills  
  ·      Mantle  
  ·      Shell  
  ·      Antennae  
  ·      Jointed appendages  
  ·      Pupa  
  ·      Nymph  
  ·      Visceral mass
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Mollusca and have No Comments

Bio 11 Mollusca Gap Notes

Biology 11

Name: ______________ __________________ Date: ________________ Block: ____________



Phylum Mollusca (Latin: mollis = “soft”)

Pages 329-334


I Background:


  • 10 Classes, 8 of which are still alive today, 2 are just fossils (we will only look at 3 of the Classes):


  • ~250000 estimated species
  • Most Molluscs are marine but some are freshwater and others are terrestrial like the common snail and slug
  • The Phylum Mollusca demonstrate incredible diversity from the clam to the giant squid


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The Molluscs are the second largest Phylum (abundance of species) next

to the Phylum Arthropoda!!!


II Body Plan/Structure: (General Characteristics of all Molluscs)


  • Molluscs demonstrate a ____________________________ symmetrical body plan
  • They have the three true germ layers:
    • __________________________
    • __________________________
    • __________________________
  • They have true coeloms
    1. The coelom has been reduced to a special body cavity that just surrounds the organs.       This cavity is called a _______________________ and contains a special type of blood called ____________________________. Since the __________________________________ is not found in __________________________________ of any kind it is considered an _______________________________________________________________
  • The Molluscs all have a true ___________________________________ with a _______________, ________________________ and _______________
  • The following features are common to all Molluscs:
    1. A muscular ___________________:   The foot is used for locomotion
    2. A ____________________: The shell is largely consisting of ____________________________________. Some Molluscs have very reduced _______________, and others, like slugs have lost their ___________ all together
    3. A ____________________: This is a fold of outer skin which lines the ____________________ and covers the rest of the body
    4. A ________________________________: The internal organs including the gut, kidneys, heart(s), and reproductive organs
    5. _________________:       These are specialized organs used for respiration (and sometimes feeding).
    6. A ___________________: This is a unique to the Phylum Mollusca and is a rasping “______________________” organ with hard ______________. It is very different in all of the Molluscs and serves many functions from __________________ algae off rocks as in the Gastropods, to a _______________________________ as in the Cephalopods


Class Bivalvia (Greek: bi = “two”, valvia = “shells”)

Pages 330 & 332

  1. Background


  • Includes many hard shelled creatures including Clams, Oysters, Mussels, Scallops etc.
  • ~ 8000 species


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The giant clam, Tridacna gigas, is the largest Bivalve in the world. Some

have been measured to weigh up to 227 kg (~500 pounds), as much as 1.2 m across

(~4 feet) and have an average lifespan of ~100 years!!!


  1. Body Plan/Structure


  • All Bivalves have a ____________ that is divided into two halves called_____________
  • The two _______________ are connected at one edge by a strong _________________________ that holds the two valves _______________
  • There are one or two _____________________________________ that connect the two __________________ together and when they are contracted the two valves come _____________________, closing the Bivalve
  • In Bivalves the __________________ takes on the form of a thin _______________________ that surrounds the body just underneath the shell. The mantle is responsible for creating the ________________.
  • In some bivalves the part of the ___________________ that is exposed to the outside of the body has _______________ to form two __________________ used for filter feeding
  • Often there is a large ____________________________ which is where _____________ can be found
  • The _______________ are used for respiration and feeding
  • Bivalves do have a ________________, but it has been laterally flattened
  • They do not have a ________________
  • Bivalves lack a head even though they demonstrate __________________ symmetry, and in fact, do not have a ________________
  • They have an _____________________________________________ which means that the “blood” just bathes the organs and is not contained within ____________________________


III. Feeding:


  • Bivalves are _____________________________
  • Water circulates through the ________________________________ where microscopic food particles are trapped by the ________________
  • The gills are ______________________ and the _______________ move the food towards the _____________ where it is taken into the _______________________
  • The food is digested in the _____________________ and then passed out through the _____________ into the _____________________________
  • Some Bivalves live buried in the sand and have evolved to have two ________________
  • In this case one siphon ______________________________ and food is filtered out by the ______________
  • Once the water has passed over the gills the Bivalve contracts its ____________________________________ and the water (along with waste from the anus) is passed out of the Bivalve from the other siphon

DID YOU KNOW!!!: The Geoduck (pronounced gooey-duck) is one of the longest living

organisms in the animal kingdom and can live up to 160 years. Scientists believe this is because of their feeding mechanism. They burrow very deep into the sand and send their long siphons to the surface of the sand to collect water and food. This process not only protects them from predators but also helps prevent the wear and tear of having to move!!!

  1. Respiration:


  • Respiration occurs in the same way that feeding does
  • Water is taken into the ____________________________ (can be through a siphon) and passes over the _________________
  • ______________________ is taken into the ______________ from the water and _________________________________ is released from the __________ into the water


  1. Internal Transport:


  • Bivalves have an _____________________________________________
  • This means that they do not have any _________________________ which would store the “blood”
  • Instead the “blood” (called ________________________) bathes the organs
  • As oxygen and food particles are taken up by the ________________ they are passed into the _________________________ which acts to transport the ___________________ and _____________________ to the rest of the body
  • A _______________ pumps the ______________________ to ensure that circulation occurs (even if it is not through blood vessels)


  1. Excretion:


  • Most of the waste material exits the anus and is then released out of the Bivalve through the __________________________ (or siphon if present)


VII. Response:


  • Though Bivalves demonstrate ____________________symmetry they lack a _________
  • Instead they have ______________________________ of very simple ______________________ which control the ______________ and ____________________________________
  • Though having such simple _________________________________________ (especially compared to other Molluscs), Bivalves can still sense and respond to the senses of:
    1. ____________________
    2. ____________________
    3. ____________________
    4. ____________________



DID YOU KNOW!!!: The Scallops have one of the most complex sensory organs of all of the

Bivalves. They have hundreds of eyes on the fringe of the mantle that have lenses and retinas, however, as complex as these eyes are they can still only detect light or dark!!!


VIII. Movement:


  • Bivalves are ______________________, but do have the ability to move
  • Most often Bivalves use their muscular _____________ for movement
  • The muscular ________________ is used to help the Bivalve ______________________ into the sand or move along the bottom of the ocean
  • Other Bivalves such as Cockles have an extremely muscular ____________ which allows them to quickly “leap” from danger
  • Razor shells use their ____________ to burrow extremely fast into the sand
  • Another form of movement is only seen in the Scallops. They use their incredibly strong _____________________________________ to rapidly open and close their valves to actually swim away from predators


DID YOU KNOW!!!: The scallops that we eat at restaurants are actually the adductor

muscles of the organism called a Scallop. The reason that these muscles are so large in Scallops is because they use them to forcefully open and close their valves allowing them to actually swim away from their predators!!!


  1. Reproduction:


  • Most Bivalves species contain both _____________ and ____________________ forms that are separate from each other, though some hermaphroditic species do exist
  • Most often sexual reproduction occurs by ______________________________________ where ______________ is released by the ______________ into the water and _____________ are released by the _________________ into the water
  • The fertilized egg will become a _______________________________ that will grow to become the adult Bivalve










  1. Ecological Roles:


  • There are numerous ecological roles that Bivalves fill
  • Many Bivalves are food for thousands of different species of animals (including us)
  • They help to recycle sediment back into the environment
  • They help to filter the water
  • One major harmful ecological role that Bivalves play involves pollution. Since they are filter feeders much of the pollution that they filter feed becomes trapped in their tissues. When other organisms feed on those toxic Bivalves they often become sick and die.


DID YOU KNOW!!!: Mussels produce an incredibly strong “superglue” that helps them cling to

surfaces during rough seas. This “superglue” is called byssus. Researchers have discovered the gene that Mussels use to create byssus and have since been able to produce the material using genetically modified yeast cells. This is a great leap in scientific research as byssus could be used for many things including dentistry, medicine and industry.


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Mollusca and have No Comments