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Archive for December, 2016

Bio 12 (16-17) 29 Dec 14th

Bio 12 (16-17) 29                                         Date Dec 14th



Last lessons Objective




Introduction to enzymes

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Inquiry based enzyme lab

2.   Lab outline

3.   Due Friday



Number One

In the last class we tested to find out how to use as spectrometer to select the actions of an enzyme. In this lab you will need to propose and carry out a test involving enzymes



Number Two

When writing up your lab, you need to do the following

Make sure to type up! Not hand written.

Title: What were you testing or examinining



State the purpose of your lab and provide a hypothesis and reason for the hypothesis. Cite a reference to show previous information about enzymes and the enzyme amylase.



Be very specific with this section, make sure to give precise measurement. Make sure to everything you used


Procedure (in point form)

Starting from the beginning, make sure to outline everything you did.

You may use this section to examine why experimental error occurred.

Imagine that if you picked up your lab, you would know exactly each step of the lab.

Assume nothing.



In this section record both qualitative and quantitative values.



Make a graph of your data. Include a title, x and y coordinates and use either a line or bar graph.


Discussion and Summary

To include:

·      Properties of the graph such as slope or if the graph is exponential and why

·      Discuss how your data and graph shows current understanding about enzymes and enzyme action.

·      You can even find a reference to compare your results with results found in your reference.

·      Discussion of possible experimental error.



To include:

·      Hypothesis of lab verses results

·      Experimental error

·      Next variable to check



Number Three

Online References


Enzyme Lab



Amylase Lab



Amylase lab



Distinct questions to answer in your discussion

·      What is the difference between using Iodine verses Benedicts solution?

·      Which enzyme would be subject to denaturing and why?


Text book Reference


Chapter 6  
You tube Reference Protein Denaturing Lab



Indicating sugar with iodine







Take Home Message A sailor noticed a sailboat with a feline on the end of boom. The boat was almost about to tip over. He pointed to it and said to his ship mates “Look…a cat a list!”



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Inquiry into Bacteria Notes

Inquiry into Bacteria:


These are focus question to help design your Data Sheet


Topic One: Myths and Monera


Prior to making your data sheet consider what comes to your mind when you hear or read the term bacteria?


Some questions you may want to consider while reading the text:

  • Where are bacteria found?
  • Are most bacteria harmful?
  • How are bacteria related to other organisms?
  • What is the difference between a prokaryote and eukaryote
  • How are the activities of life useful in examining how bacteria interact with other species?


Topic Two: The problems of classification


Here is the first thing to consider:

  • What was the original system to classify organisms?
  • What properties or observations did this system use for classification?
  • Can these observations be used to classify microscopic organism?
  • What techniques could be used to establish observational criteria?
  • What are some limitations of classifying organism based upon structures?





Topic Three: Metabolic Perspectives


Now we have gone molecular, so how can metabolic pathways provide a new way to classify organism?

Consider the following

  • How do organism get or make their energy?
  • How do organisms feed themselves?
  • How is the environment related to metabolism?


Topic Four Interactions with Humans

Positive Interactions

  • What are the top ten positive interactions with bacteria?


Negative Interactions

  • How is metabolism and structure related to negative interactions?
  • How are negative interactions prevented?

(from a macrobiotic to molecular perspectives)


Topic Five: Playing with critters!

  • What is the criteria for sanitary technique?
  • How can metabolic activities be used make observations about bacteria?
  • What simple tests and ideas can we create?


Topic Six: Creating a testable experiment!

  • You will be responsible for creating an experiment!



Bacteria Notes:

Part One: Unity and Diversity

Ways to classify bacteria

  • Shape and size
  • Gram positive and Gram negative
  • Metabolism (include respiration and food source)
  • Archeo and Eubacteria


  1. Size and Shape
  • Bacteria were first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677 after he had invented the compound microscope.
  • Bacteria range in size from about 1 to 10 um long by about 0.2 to 0.3 um across (1 um = .001 mm).


Most true bacteria come in one of three different shapes:

(1) Rod shaped: Bacillus(i) [filaments or single].

(2) Spherical shaped: Coccus(i) [pairs, chains, groups or single].

(3) Spiral shaped: Spirillum(a) [seldom in colonies]

Some bacteria tend to form groups:

Diplococci are pairs of spherical shaped bacteria

Streptococci are chains of spherical shaped bacteria

Staphylococci are clusters of spherical shaped bacteria


B: Gram positive and Gram negative


The term gram positive or negative, refers to both a staining proccess and specific structure of bacterial cell membranes or wall. The gram staining method is one of the more important techniques in microbiology. Yet one has to realize that this technique is not 100 percent fool proof. Differences in results can be due to type of stains and age of bacteria.

  • The staining process follows the following protocal:
  • Heat fix bacteria to slide
  • Stain with purple dye (crystal violet), rinse with distilled water
  • Stain with with iodine (marker), rinse with water
  • Rinse with alchol wash, functions as a decolorization process in which negative lose colour.
  • Stain with safranin (red stain) which is counter stain for gram negative


In regards to cell membrane structures:


Gram positive bacteria have cell walls composed of peptidoglycan (murein) and teichoic acid. ( basically a sugar based structure combined with amino acids)


Gram negative bacteria also have cell walls composed of a peptidoglycan ( in small amounts) but this layer is surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane.


Comparison of Characteristic of Gram + and Gram –

Characteristic Gram Positive Gram Negative
Gram Reaction Stain dark violet or purple Stain pink
Ratio RNA to DNA 8:1 1:1
Nutritional requirements More complex Less complex
Susceptability to penicillin Marked Less marked
Susceptability to streptomycin and tetracycline Much less Marked
Susceptability to anionic detergents Marked Less marked
Resistance to sodium azide Marked Less marked


C: Metabolism and Nutrition

Cell Metabolism:

Nutrients are ingested and then:

  1. broken down by enzymes within cell
  2. further breakdown of material is done to produce energy
  • Energy is absorbed by biochemical ADP (adenine di phosphate)
  • Energy is released by biochemical ATP ( adenine tri phosphate)


Energy can be produced with or without oxygen

  1. Anearobic: are bacteria that do not need oxygen for cell metabolism
  2. Areorobic: are bacteria that require oxygen for cell metabolism
  3. Facualtative: are bacteria that can metabolize with or without oxygen
  • Obligate Aerobes are those which must have oxygen
  • Obligate Anaerobes are bacteria which cannot tolerate


There are many types of nutrition found among bacteria:


Autotrophic Nutrition:

  1. Some are photosynthetic (use sunlight energy to produce their own food).
  2. Some are chemosynthetic (oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain their

energy to produce their own food).

  • These organisms are known as Photoautotrophs and Chemoautotrophs in that they manufacture their own food.

Heterotrophic Nutition.

They must obtain their energy and nutrients from other sources.

For example:

  • Saprophytic bacteria : digest materials in their environment by releasing powerful digestive enzymes. They then absorb the digested nutrients.
  • Parasitic bacteria : rely on other organisms to provide the digested nutrients directly.



Part Two: Interactions

Bacteria can exist everywhere there is life this includes:

  • in the air
  • in the water
  • in the earth
  • on plants
  • in organism
  • without bacteria, we as humans could not exist
  • bacteria are the most primitive form of life because they:
  1. a) grow and reproduce ( as often as one time every 15-25 minutes)
  2. b) they use nutrients to survive
  3. c) they have simple cell structures
  • it is possible to see bacteria through a light or electron microscope
  • Bacteria are both helpful and harmful
  • To preserve or stop bacteria metabolism they can be:


dried out




Dangerous bacteria are called pathogens because they cause diseases.

  • to control pathogenic bacteria you can remove bacteria by:

removing all bacteria using extreme heat

wash with antiseptic soaps

use antibiotics

specific immunization for specific bacteria proteins

  • Some bacteria can become resistant to antibodies by altering protein coat or structure of cell wall.
  • Bacteria can change into dormant forms called spores, which allow the bacteria to stop metabolism in extremely harsh environments


Useful Bacteria (at least 12 reasons!)

Most bacteria are not pathogenic — include decomposers, nitrogen

fixing bacteria, vitamin producing bacteria, bacteria used to make

insulin and growth hormone, bacteria used in dry cleaning, tanning,

cheese, yogurt


Essential Bacteria:

Bacteria can be helpful because:

  • they help plants absorb nutrients from the soil ( specifically nitrogen)
  • they are used to make milk products such as yogurt, cheese and butter
  • they can be used to manufacture antibiotics
  • they can alter biproducts from sewage treatments into non toxic waste
  • they can be used to produce specific gases such as methane
  • they are used for fermentation


  • Escherichia coli Gram – rod shape (bacilli)
  • Sarcina lutea Gram + round shape (cocci)
  • Bacillus subtilis Gram + rod shape (bacilli)
  • Bacillus cereus Gram + rod shape (bacilli)
  • Serratia marcescens Gram – rod shape (bacilli)
  • Rhodospirillum rubrum Gram – spiral shape (spirilla)


Harmful Bacteria

Harmful bacteria can cause disease (Pathogenic) by interfering with the host’s normal routine, by destroying cells and tissues, by producing endotoxins and exotoxins, and by eliciting an immune response.

  • An endotoxin is a toxin within the bacterium that is only released when the bacterium dies and it breaks down.
  • An exotoxin is a toxin released by living bacteria.


Koch’s Postulates: –

used to prove that an organism is responsible for a particular disease.

  1. must be shown that the organism in question is always present in

the diseased hosts.

  1. microbe must be isolated from the host and grown in a pure


  1. microbe from pure culture must be capable of producing the

disease symptoms in a new healthy host.

  1. microbes isolated from the newly infected host must be grown in a

pure culture and compared to the original micro-organism.



  1. a) Respiratory Tract: Strep throat, Rheumatic fever, Scarlet fever;

Pneumonia, Whooping cough, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis…

  1. b) Skin: Staph (pimples and boils), Leprosy, Gas gangrene…
  2. c) Nervous System: Tetanus, Botulism, Meningitis…
  3. d) Digestive System: Typhoid fever, Cholera, Dysentery; (food

poisoning) Salmonella, Botulism, Staph…

  1. e) Venereal Diseases: Gonorrhea, Syphilis…




Infection by bacteria

There are three lines of defence through which bacteria must


  1. a) through the strong epidermal tissue (skin).. .in wounds, pores,


  1. b) phagocytic white blood cells which engulf foreign materials including bacteria.
  2. c) antibodies produced by other white blood cells.


Active Immunity

– is slow acting (because the body is taking time to produce antibodies against the infection); but long lasting (because the body produces “memory cells” which “remember” how to produce these specific antibodies again).

Normally produced by actual initial infection (chicken pox), or by using a vaccine (polio, smallpox). The vaccine consists of either weakened (attenuated) bacteria, dead bacteria, or artificial products which resemble the actual foreign invader (antigen).


Passive Immunity

This is fast acting (because the person is injected with antiserum containing the necessary antibodies or antitoxin); but short-lived (because the person does not actually produce the antibodies – hence no memory cells for the future!). The protein antibodies are often provided from the blood of a larger animal such

as a horse! (Tetanus, Rabies). New techniques have been designed so that bacteria can produce specific antibodies. Newborns initially have Passive Immunity through the passage of antibodies across the placenta, and in the Mother’s milk. In some cases, injection of Toxoids stimulate the production of natural antitoxins.


Antibiotics a biological substance which will kill or slow (inhibit) the growth of an organism.

e.g. Penicillin, Tetracycline, Bacitracin, Ampicillin,


  1. a) must be bacteria-specific.
  2. b) some people are allergic to certain antibiotics.
  3. c) some could kill off useful bacteria.
  4. d) may reduce the competitive pressure and allow

harmful bacteria to survive.

  1. e) may cause resistant strains to develop.

Other biocides include: Sulfur Drugs, antitoxins, various

bacteriocides, disinfectants…


Part Three: Changes with time



  1. Bacteria reproduce mostly asexually by a process called BinaryFission. In this method, the circular ring of DNA replicates, and then the cell divides into two daughter cells — each with its own DNA.


  1. Some bacteria can also undergo sexual reproduction by a process called Conjugation. In this method, the “male” is connected to the “female” by a tube called a Pilus. The DNA from the “male” then travels through the tube to the “female”. Here, it recombines with the “female” DNA and the “female” bacterium then divides.


  • Some bacteria can be Transformed into a different cell by absorbing fragments of DNA of other cells. In another method of producing recombined bacterial DNA, bacteriophages (viruses) carry portions of the bacterial DNA from one cell to another. This process is called Transduction.



  1. When environmental conditions are not favourable, some bacteria are capable of forming highly resistant thick-walled Endospores until conditions once again return to normal.


Part Four Form and Function

Cell Structure:

A bacteria cell has the following structures:

  • Nuclear material in the form of DNA to pass on genetic information
  • Cell membrane: which controls the flow of material in and out of a cell
  • Ribosome: which assist in making cell proteins
  • Cell wall
  • Flagella
  • Endospores


Bacteria Lab Questions:

  1. Why must you always use sterile technique when working with bacteria?
  2. What does “pathogenic” mean?
  3. What is an “inoculum”?
  4. List three general rules for handling bacteria.
  5. When is the Pour Plate Method of culturing bacteria used?
  6. Why must you be careful in regulating the temperature of the melted agar in the Pour Plate Method?
  7. In procedure 7 in each of the labs, why did you have to flame the mouths of the test tubes?
  8. What is the reason for using the streak plate method?
  9. What is the reason for using the Pour plate method?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Microbio and have No Comments

Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 28 Dec 13

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 28                                         Date Dec 13 2016



Last lessons


1)    Life as a simple cell

2)    Linking Monera to classification and evolution

3)    Creating a Monera “Data Sheet”






Today’s Objectives 1)    Virus quiz, Review of last class and role of bacteria

2)    Bacteria reproduction and Koch’s postulate

3)    Sterile technique, gram stain and disinfectants



Number One

Soup in a bag in a box in box



Identifying bacteria



Bacteria can be classified by shape, colonies, metabolism and staiing techniques


The next part of our journey is exploring bacteria through experimentation and examining the history of bacteria.


Video Assignment


It is a common misconception that all bacteria are dangerous.

By reviewing these video, can you collect facts to support or debate this statement?

Make sure to listen for and record vocabulary terms used.

How does the media influence our perceptions about bacteria


From the following video clips, how are bacteria viewed?

What vocabulary is being used?


Classification of Monera

Disease verses Helpful



History of Bacteria 1



History of Bacteria 2









Biotoxins and “germs of war”



Hunting the nightmare bacteria



The story continues



antibiotics and super bugs



Now go back to your previous sheet on 12 ways bacteria can help humans

·                How would you create an argument to debate the role of bacteria?

·                What are arguments for Bacteria being helpful?

·                What percent of all bacteria are pathogenic?



Number Two


Activity of life (Reproduction) and disease


reproduction and Koch postulate






Koch Postulate



How did Kock use the scientific method to create his postulate?


What was his variable?


What is the difference between a postulate and a theory?




Number Three


Learning how to work with bacteria


In preparation for next classes lab


A simple version of how to get microbes from yogurt



Aseptic technique



Gram Stain





Text book Ref


Gap notes for Bacteria

Chapter 8

Online Youtube videos


·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvcq8LziGd0

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtaATIC0S3E

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZGQfO85uzM



Take Home Message  


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 27 Fri 9th

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 27                                         Date Dec 9 2016



Last lessons


1)    Virus and immune system and big Ideas

2)    Active and Passive Immunity

3)    Introduction to Monera






Today’s Objectives 1)    Life as a simple cell

2)    Linking Monera to classification and evolution

3)    Creating a Monera “Data Sheet”



Number One



noun: life; noun: one’s life; plural noun: one’s lifes

the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death.

Wiki rf



Here is the challenge. In order to life, you need to be able to make or get energy. To get energy you need to move to that energy. If we focus on three main activities; growth, movement and reproduction, we begin to see a simple path to follow to explore life as a simpler prokaryotic cell. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote


Lets simply ..monera can be seen as “soup, in a bag, in a box”


The soup is all the fluids, gases and molecules within the cells cytoplasm.

The bag, is a selectively permeable membrane.

and the bag, an option, is a cell wall or even a protective capsule.


Using the diagrams found in class or on line, we notice how things get in or out of the cell.

Remember that “metabolism” is the sum of all reactions in a living thing. We can simplify this to two main types of reactions, making and breaking molecules. This is done to store or use energy.


This “story of energy” is a great way to explore the beginning of this amazing thing called life.




Number Two


Most Monerans can grow, reproduce and evolve rapidly. So the university designed a means to show both

At Harvard University, they designed a great way to show the rate of bacteria cell growth and how it is affected by anitbiotics



When a bacteria moves towards or away from a stimuli, we call this “taxis”. If a bacteria moves away, it is negative taxis.

Lets suppose a bacteria is moving towards a chemical. We would call that “positive chemotaxis”.


E.Coli is a “eubacteria”, it can be found inside of you. In this experiment, we notice how fast this species of bacteria can adapt. In the lab you will notice how species adapt or become extinct due to the affects of bacteria. Notice the difference in rate of growth on each side.

Also notic the clear or not clear separations between colonies of bacteria. A group of bacteria is not a tissue yet a colony. Why?


Now classification and Bacteria

3 majour groups :




, Eubacteria and Blue Green Algae.









Number Three

Making a “Data Sheet” for Monera


On a legal piece of paper, we are going to fold the paper into a 3×3 grid.

Column One: Diagrams

Column Two: Key “systems” and concepts in Monera

Column Three: Vocabulary.


Sample for Monera Data Sheet



Diagrams Systems Vocab

Draw and label simple cell here


If make own energy

If make own energy with light

If make own energy with inorganic chemicals

Get own energy for other living things

Respiration burining sugar with or without sugar.

Genetic material in a loop








Archeobacteria How have system changed?

Types of interactions

Disease causing archeo bacteria





Different shapes and types of colonies

As bacteria get bigger, what systems change?

Waste can stay inside of cell or be released.




Endo and exotoxins





Text book Ref


Gap notes for Bacteria

Chapter 8

Online Youtube videos


·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvcq8LziGd0

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtaATIC0S3E

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZGQfO85uzM



Take Home Message An interesting point brought up in class..bacteria succeed because they can work together.


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) L 25 Dec 8th

Bio 12 (16-17) L25                              Date: Dec 8 2017


Last lessons


Class Notes or Information

1.   Role of Enzymes

2.   Action of enzymes and changes due to ph, heat, acid and heavy metal





Today’s Objective 1)   Metabolic pathways

2)   Key reactions that can be monitored ( amylase and peroxidase)

3)   Planning to use spectrometer



Number One

Metabolic Pathways


We are on page 5 of our notes!

Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within an organism.

Put simply, energy allows things to move.

Energy can be stored or used by the body.

Key players in the metabolic game of energy are ATP, Oxygen, ATP, Vitamins, Calcium and yes..Enzymes.


A cell can move, grow and reproduce. In each case you need energy.


Energy can be potential or kinetic


Potential is stored energy

Kinetic energy is linked to breaking down stored energy


Key terms: Anabolic (make) and Catabolic (break)


So simplify: I ate cereal and now I have energy.

a)   Glycolysis is the break down of sugar.

b)   By breaking down sugar, the body can convert products into ATP.

c)    By adding Hydrogen to Oxygen, the body has an efficient way to make ATP


To move you need energy, so does a cell.

In order, energy demands can be met by breaking down

a)   complex sugars to monosaccride, then to atp

b)   complex fats broken down to fatty acids can merge with sugar being metabolized.

c)    Complex proteins can be broken down and added to sugar metabolic pathway.


To break things down, you need energy.

You do not want to use more energy to break things down, than what you will get from catabolic pathways..

So we need enzymes!


See page 6 of notes


Khan explaination



Another video




Number Two

First of all a shout out for enzymes..

Bozeman Science



So how can we observe an enzyme reaction?


Note: Substrate plus enzyme will make product


If you change the amount of substrate, you need more enzyme.


If you have a functional enzyme it will make a product.

You can measure a variety of enzyme reactions by identifying the product.


Some easy enzyme reactions to monitor are:


Amylase reaction



Starch is a poly saccharide to break it down you can make into a disaccharide. What is the difference between amylase and maltase?


A story on amylase



Catalase Reaction



Peroxide (H2O2) bleaches your hair, cleans up a would but can affect your body. Catalase converts peroxide into water and oxygen!


Is there a metabolic relationship between amylase and catalase?



Number Three

If you change the structure of an enzyme, you will decrease the amount of product.

Some changes are permanent.

Some changes do not change the structure of the enzyme.


Lab with spectrometer and temperature




Sample amylase lab




Sample of a published amylase lab



Indicators and enzyme reaction products.


What does IKI bond to?

What does Benedicts solution bond to?




Text Reference Chapter 6, see chapter 6 practice quiz


Google hunt Mader Chapter quizzes






Class Notes References Chapter 6 in text  
Take Home message



How is meat tenderizer related to enzymes?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 11 (16-17) Lesson 25 Dec 8

Biology 11 (16-17) Lesson 26                                         Date Dec 8 2016



Last lessons


1)    Review virus reproductive

2)    Intro to notion of an infection

3)    Intro to immunology


Today’s Objectives 1)    Virus and immune system and big Ideas

2)    Active and Passive Immunity

3)    Introduction to Monera



Number One

·      Defining critical thinking

·      Self evaluation


Virus and immune system


Three Big Ideas

a)   Taxonomy

b)   DNA and Evolutions

c)   Activity of life


1)    Properties of a virus

2)    Virus Quiz



Online Reference






Number Two



Using bio vocab to discuss two types of immunity.


Active: to initiate full immune response with memory

Passive: No immune response just antibodies and no memory


Active verses passive immunity




Bio quizlets


·      https://quizlet.com/10792737/viruses-bacteria-and-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/125940964/bacteria-viruses-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/109837387/chapter-17-chapter-35-viruses-the-immune-system-flash-cards/

·      https://quizlet.com/42975170/viruses-and-immune-system-flash-cards/



Number Three

Problems to solve:

·      What is Monera?

·      Classification of Monera

·      What do bacteria do?

·      How to observe bacteria


General characteristics of the kingdom Monera are as follows:


•   They are primitive organisms.

•   All organisms of the kingdom are prokaryotes.

•   They are present in both living and non-living environment.

•   They can survive in harsh and extreme climatic conditions like in hot springs, acidic soils etc.

•   They are unicellular organisms.

•   Membrane bound nucleus is absent.

•   DNA is in double stranded form, suspended in the cytoplasm of the organism,referred as nucleoid.

•   A rigid cell wall is present.

•   Membrane bound cellular organelles like mitochondria are absent.

•   Habitat – Monerans are found everywhere in hot springs, under ice, in deep ocean floor, in deserts and on or inside the body of plants and animals.

•   Nutrition – autotrophs – can prepare their own food, heterotrophs – depend on others for food, saprophytes – feed on dead and decaying matter, parasitic – live on other host cells for survival and cause, symbiotic – in mutual relation with other organisms, commensalism – it is where one organism is benefited and the other is not affected, mutualism – where both the organisms are benefited.

•   Respiration – respiration in these organisms vary, they may be obligate aerobes – the organisms must have organisms for survival; obligate anaerobes – the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen; facultative anaerobes – these organisms can survive with or without oxygen.

•   Circulation – is through diffusion.

•   Movement – is with the help of flagella.

Reproduction is mostly asexual, sexual reproduction is also seen. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission, sexual reproduction is by conjugation, transformation and transduction.


Key Points



·      Kingdom verse Domain

·      By structure and by function

·      Defining what is a primitive structure

·      Defining by metabolism



·      Auto and Heterotroph

·      Aerobe and anaerobe

·      Photo and Chemo synthesis

·      Taxis


Positive and negative roles of bacteria


12 Positive roles



A comparison of good to bad




Observing Bacteria


Through a microscope





Looking at petri dishes



Chemical responses and Staining



Yogurt and bacteria




Text book Ref


Gap notes for Bacteria

Chapter 8

Online Youtube videos


·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvcq8LziGd0

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtaATIC0S3E

·      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZGQfO85uzM



Take Home Message Critical thinking is


“thinking that attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honesty evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments”.


Donald Hatcher

“Reasoning and Writing”

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Micro Bio,Science 10 and have No Comments