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Night before exam and all through the house..

For Bio 12 Anatomy and Physiology Students..

Please get some sleep tonight!

Here is a site with good data for your cheat sheet.

Chemistry of life Water https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/water/


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Circulatory Exam Review

Topic Questions


Heart Anatomy Using a diagram, be able to label all blood vessels, valves and chambers


·      4 valves and locations (note two names that can change).

·      4 blood vessels and location

·      4 chambers and location

·      Cartilage to limit motion of valves

·      Cardiac blood vessels

·      Papillary Muscles

·      Purkinje fibres

·      Chordae tendinae


·      What tissue or structures surrounds the heart?

·      What is the tissue lining the inside of the ventricles?




see notes

Blood vessel

Away and to the heart

Using the diagram from page 1 of your notes:

Identify changes in

·      Pressure

·      Velocity

·      Surface Area


Identify reasons for changes in velocity, pressure and cross section area


Which blood vessel has the largest or the smallest diameter?


Which blood vessel has the most or least amount of muscle


Which blood vessels show a pulse


How is a vein suited for its function?


Why are the advantages of slowing blood in capillary bed?


What are the primary blood vessels that go to:

·      The intestines

·      The kidney

·      The legs

·      The head


Which blood vessels have a high concentrations of:

·      Oxygen

·      Carbon Dioxide

·      Nutrients

·      Waste


·      During an operation, a surgeon slices a blood vessel, what clues would identify if it were a vein or artery?


·      Why would tissues of capillaries have a high number of mitochondria?


Cardiac Cycle ·      Heart rate is controlled by which part of the brain?

·      What is the difference between a pulse and the cardiac cycle?

·      What are the specific steps of the cardiac cycle?


ECG ·      What is a pass maker and the natural pacemaker in the heart

·      What is the difference between P and T waves

·      What disorders of the heart could be linked to length and height of EKG?


Lymphatic system ·      How are lymph capillary similar to veins

·      How are lacteals associated with the circulatory system?


Blood flow ·      What is the correct path of blood from the heart to the lungs, back to the heart and then to the body

·      What are the blood vessels in this paths



Blood Pressure ·      What is the relationship between

·      Systole and Diastole


·      What blood vessel would have a pressure of 35 to 16 Hg


·      Which organs can influence blood pressure besides the kidney?


·      What are two no medicinal ways that the body can lower or raise blood pressure?



What is a:

·      Stint

·      Coronary by pass

·      Stroke

·      Aneurysm

·      Heart attack

·      Hemorrhage


·      What is the relationship between a thrombus and embolus?


·      What are two symptoms that would be noticed if the valve between your right atrium and right ventricle is not working correctly


·      How are “plague” and a coronary by pass related?


Fetal Blood Flow ·      What are the four adaptions of fetal blood flow?

·      What is the function of the Foremen ovale?

·      What is the function of the Ductous arteriosus?



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Cheat Sheet Guide for DNA and Enzymes

Chapter 5/ 24 Cheat Sheet Topics



Chapt Key Topic Questions
  DNA a)   What is found in Nucleic Acid
    b)   Why are ratios of base pairs linked to type of base?
    c)    What portion of DNA define genes?
    d)   Where does replication occur
    e)   What are the steps and proteins involved in replication?
    f)     What is the backbone of DNA made of?
    g)   How can you use a diagram of DNA replication to identify specific base pairs
    h)   What are three properties of DNA? (SAS)
    i)     What are the specific steps for both replication.
  Protein Synthesis ·      Where does RNA get made in a cell?

·      What is involved in:

·      Transcription

·      Translation

    What is the function of

·      mRNA

·      tRNA

·      rRNA

    What are the structure and function of a


b) Codone

c) Anticodon


    How do you use mRNA and tRNA tables to define what proteins should be created from a strand of DNA?
    What is the role of restrictive enzymes in protein synthesis?
  Mutations What is a definition for “mutation”

How would the code for a protein change for point mutations?

  Bio tech How does recombinant DNA work?
    How can helicase and polymerase be used in biotechnology?
  Enzymes ·      What is the role of enzymes in reactions
    ·      What is activation energy
    ·      How can you increase or decrease an enzyme reaction?
    ·      What is the role of a coenzyme?
    ·      What two theories are linked to enzymes?
    ·      What are three factors that can create a significant change in an enzyme?
    ·      There are four types of bonds in enzymes, which 3 factors factors affect these four types of bonds and how?
    ·      What is competitive inhibition
    ·      How can a coenzyme help an enzyme work? (example?)
    ·      How can an end product of a metabolic pathway be used to control its own production?
    ·      In our class experiment we used the enzyme “amylase” to break down corn starch, what would happen if we used pepsin instead?
    ·      What are four factors that could slow or speed up an enzymatic reaction. (note this is not to denature the enzyme)
    ·      How did we use a data table to decide which enzyme has been denatured?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Bio 12 Review Questions for Chapter 3 and 4 exam

Bio 12 Cell Biology and Membrane Review



Topic Subtopic  
Cell Biology Energy ·      Which organelle is linked to cellular respiration.

·      What does it need?

·      What products are made?

·      Which organelle oxidizes glucose?

·      How is a mitochondria linked to prokaryotic cells?


  Plant Cells What process is linked to:

·      Cell walls

·      Making sugar

·      Storing water

·      What organelles or structures are unique to just plants?

·      How could you identify a chloroplast in a group of organelles diagrams?


  Making Protein ·      What type of molecules are made in the RER.

·      What structure can be used to identify RER?

·      How could you identify proteins used for within the cell verses being made to leave the cell?

·      Which leaves the nucleus, DNA or RNA and why?


  Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton ·      What is role of cytosplasm and cytosol?

·      What is the role of cytoskeleton?

·      How is protein structure linked to cytoskeletons?

  Making lipids ·      What type of molecules are made in the SER

·      What are two functions of the SER?

·      Would SER make both hormones and detox what enters a cell?

·      How is the SER linked to cholesterol?

·      Do SER modify and activate hormones?

  Eating cells ·      What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
  Vesicles and cells ·      What is the role of endocytosis

·      What is the role of exocytosis

  Packaging ·      What type of molecules leave the cell inside vescicles?

·      Looking at a cell diagram, how could you distinquish between ER and Golgi?

    ·      How does a lysosome digest what is inside a vesicle?
  Information ·      What is the distinction between nucleus and nucleolus?

·      What process is linked to the nucleolus?

·      What process is linked to the nucleus?

  Microtubules, filaments and more ·      Which filament has a 9+2 pattern?

·      Which filament has a 9+2 pattern?

  Cell behavior Which solutions cause a cell to:

a)   shrink or creanate?

b)   swell or burst?

c)    stay the same?


  Cell Metabolism ·      What is the sequence to make, package and then release a vesicle?

·      Which organelles require hydrolytic enzymes?

·      What structures are found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?


  Structure ·      What are the main molecules found in a cell’s membrane?

·      Which are hydrophobic?

·      Can you identify structure of a cell membrane using a diagram of the cell membrane?

·      Are cell membranes found is just plant or animal cells?

·      What is the purpose of cholesterol in the cell membrane?


  Diffusion and osmosis ·      How can you use a “u” tube to describe movement through a semi permeable membrane?
  Passive ·      What are some example of facilitated or passive moment across a cell membrane.

·      What are two characteristic about passive transport that are different that active transport


  Active ·      How does the thyroid gland get such a high level of Iodine within the cells of that gland?

·      Which molecules are actively transported across a membrane?

·      Can you label and discuss the sodium potassium shunt?

  Integration Questions How is hydrostatic pressure related to osmotic pressure?


What are the relationships both in structure and function of SER and the Golgi Apparatus?


What organelles could be linked to the following cells and why:

·      Thyroid gland

·      Muscle cell

·      Photosynthetic cell

·      Gland cell

·      Neuron


What multiple mechanisms are involved in the movement of:

·      Water

·      Sodium ions

·      Amino acids



What are three ways that active transport differs from diffusion across a cell membrane?


What would happen if you put a saltwater fish egg into fresh water?


Why would you store a marine invertebrate in fresh water?


How would you know if a human was drowned in fresh water or salt water if you looked at their lung cells?


What is the difference between a semipermeable membrane and a selectively permeable membrane.


How could you make a semipermeable membrane work faster?

  Vocab Check Can you identify or match structures with functions.

·      Nucleus

·      Nucleolus

·      RER

·      SER

·      Golgi Apparatus

·      Cilia

·      Polysome

·      Basal Body

·      Flagella

·      Cilia

·      Centriole


Format Multiple Choice Diagrams and statements

Problem solve with tonicity

Sequence of events

Labeling cellular structures

  Short Answers Comparison questions

Predictions with solutions

  Matching Structures with functions.



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments

Biology 12 ( Blood Review Sheet)

Blo 12 Blood Review Sheet:


Part One: “The Bits” or vocab (take the time to fill in)


Vocab Definition
Bicarbonate ion  
Blood Type  
Carbon dioxide  
Carbonic acid  
Prothrombin activator  
Red Blood Cell  
Rh factor  
Stem cell  
Tissue fluid  
White blood cells  
  Hormone that increases blood glucose level
  Hormone that lowers blood calcium level
  Hormone that decreases blood glucose
  Hormone that increases metabolic rate
  Hormone that helps in repair of damaged tissues



Part Two: How things interact


  1. Inflammation
  • What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?
  • What are the cellular products in inflammation?
  • What are the plasma components of inflammation?
  • What are the five stages or events of inflammation?


  1. Blood Clotting
  • What are the cellular components of a clotting response?
  • What are the biochemical components of a clotting response?
  • What element helps with blood clotting?
  • What are the specific steps of blood clotting?


  1. Blood Type
  • How many blood types are there and how are they identified?
  • What is a universal donor?
  • What is a universal receiver?
  • What is a rhesus factor and how does it occur?
  • How is agglutination related to rh factor and how would you notice under a microscope?
  • What is “erythroblastosis fetalis” and how does it occur?


  1. Cell types
  • What is the role of specific white blood cells?
  • Over population of white blood cells is due to?
  • What occurs if there is a shortage of red blood cells?
  • What is missing in red blood cells?
  • How often do red blood cells get replaced and where do replacement cells come from?



  1. Gas Exchange
  • Most of the carbon dioxide produced by cells is carried in the blood plasma as?
  • Slow uptake of carbon dioxide occurs in the plasma to create?
  • What is the role of carbonic anhydrase and where does it occur?
  • What is the role of chlorine and blood plasma carbon dioxide?
  • Carbon dioxide and water in the blood changes to?
  • How does the blood regulate ph?
  • What is the role of carbaminohemoglobin in red blood cells?



And then..things that go whoops!


  1. Abnormal blood tests

What would cause the following and what could be possible symptoms

  1. decrease in leukocytes
  2. low level of fibrinogen
  3. Elevated levels of plasma proteins
  4. To little iron in the blood
  5. Low ph in blood
  6. Low level of calcium in blood
  7. Low level of carbonic anhydrase in rbc
  8. Low levels of red blood cells
  9. High levels of glucose in the blood
  10. Low levels of glucose in the blood


Some things to consider


  • What is an autoimmune response?
  • How is cancer linked to blood types?
  • What are two reasons why oxygen, water and nutrients move freely from the arteriole end of the capillary into the tissue fluid?
  • How can a hematocrit give a quick description of what is occurring within your body?
  • How is stem cell research linked to blood cellular components?
  • Which two ions could affect how blood absorbs carbon dioxide and how blood clots?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology Twelve Notes and have No Comments