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Biology 12 Nov 26th

Biology 12 Lesson Outline                                      Date Nov 24th



Last lessons Objective




Cell Biology Exam

Structure and function of DNA

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Three steps of Replication

2.   Three steps of Transcription

3.   Three steps of Translation



Number One


This is part one of your study guide

On a legal piece of paper either staple or draw the three steps of replication


Step one


Unwind the DNA

·      Which enzyme is involved in unwinding the DNA?

·      Which enzyme “unzips” the DNA?

·      Where is this process occurring?

·      What building blocks are required?

·      What chemical bonds are being broken

·      How is the supercoiled molecule unwound?

·      What is the role of 5 to 3 ends of DNA?


Step Two

Making a copy of nucleotide chain

·      What is the job of rna primase?

·      What is the role of a primer

·      What is the difference between the leading strand and the lagging strand?

·      Which enzyme is involved?

·      What chemical bonds are being made?

·      Is there a possibility for error and what would that error be called?

·      Are nucleotides added in a particular fashion?

Step Three

Stick the nucleotides together and prepare of cell division

·      Which enzyme is involved?

·      What chemical bonds are being made?

·      What is a Okazak fragment?

·      What is different in binding of nucleotides when you compare leading strand to lagging strand?

·      Are there different types of primase? Why?

·      After replication, what is the “ploidy

·      What is the role of replication and how is it linked to the functions of DNA?


Online references notes


Basic Replication



Replication with leading and lagging



Replication and enzymes (most thorough)





Number Two


Steps of Protein Synthesis


Two steps:

Transcription   (making rna in nucleus)

Translation     (making protein in cytoplasm)


Consider the following:

·      Transcription is similar to replication in that you are following a similar series of step to make a copy of the DNA sequence

·      Translation is taking a single strand of RNA and translating that code so that a protein can be made with all amino acids linked in a specific order.


Steps of Transcription








The basics of transcription



More than basics of transcription




Quiz on transcription





Number Three

Step of Translation



Focus Questions:

·      What genetic material is involved in this process?

·      Where is it occurring?

·      What molecule has the code for Protein?

·      What protein structure helps to translate the sequence?

·      What genetic material transports amino acids?

·      Is there a code to initiate the process of translation?



Focus questions:

·      What protein structures are being used to combine amino acids.

·      Is there a code to start and stop protein elongation?




Spark Notes




Study com with video and quiz


Carleton U Microbellife page







Text book Reference


Chapter 25
You tube Reference  


Take Home Message The magic number is 3.

Unwind, copy, rewind for Replication

Initiate, Elongate,Terminate for protein synthesis


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