" The Big Picture!" by Mr C

VSB Science Blog

Arthropoda Gap Notes

Biology 11


Name: _______________ ____________________ Date: ________________ Block: _________



Phylum Arthropoda (Greek: arthros = “joint”, podos = “foot”)

Pages 334-338


I Background:


  • The Phylum Arthropoda includes 5 Subphyla that include a total of 19 Classes. Some of these Subphyla and Classes include:
    • Subphylum: _______________________________ (Includes 1 Class)
      • Class: _________________________ – Includes only Trilobites, which are extinct today
    • Subphylum: ________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _______________________ – Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks, Mites etc.
      • Class:____________________________________ – Horseshoe crabs
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: _________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _____________________________ – Centipedes
      • Class: _____________________________ – Millipedes
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: ________________________________ (Includes 4 Classes)
      • Class: _______________________________ – Insects
      • Etc.
    • Subphylum: ______________________________________ (Includes 6 Classes)
      • Class: ____________________________________ – Lobsters, Crabs, Shrimp, Crayfish etc.
      • Class: ____________________________________ – Barnacles etc.
      • Etc.


II Body Plan/Structure:


  • Arthropods demonstrate a _______________________________ symmetrical body plan
  • They have the three true germ layers:
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
  • One of the defining characteristics of all Arthropods is the division of the body into three body segments:
    • The _______________ – Contains _________________________ organs and ___________________ parts (Can have pinchers)
    • The _______________________ – Contains the walking ___________ and _______________ if present
    • The ______________________ – Contains the ______________________ organs, can contain _______________________________ in Crustaceans and can also contain the ______________________________ in Arachnids


Note: The head and thorax of some Arthropods have fused to become a ________________________________ such as the Arachnids


  • Arthropods have an _____________________________ made out of _______________. The exoskeleton is used for ______________________ and to prevent _________________________(drying out)
  • In order to grow Arthropods have to undergo ___________________ in which a larger, soft exoskeleton grows under the old one. As the internal exoskeleton grows it cracks the old exoskeleton open and the Arthropod wriggles out of it, a little bigger
  • Arthropods have ______________ appendages. These appendages have evolved to be used for :
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________
    • _________________________, Etc.
  • Arthropods have an _________________ circulatory system that is comprised of many open spaces that make up the ________________________.
  • The ________________________ is filled with __________________________ which acts as blood for Arthropods
  • The blood is pumped throughout the tissues by a series of ______________ that extend along the ____________________ side of the entire body


DID YOU KNOW!!!: At least half of the described species of living animals are Arthropods

(mostly insects), but arthropods are less common as fossils. The most familiar group of fossil Arthropods is undoubtedly the trilobites!!!






III. Feeding:


  • The mouth of Arthropods is found in the head region
  • It is often comprised of two or more paired appendages (modified segments) used for biting, cutting and holding food
  • Examples of some of these mouth parts are _____________________ in the Class Insecta or ________________________ in the Arachnida
  • Due to the incredible diversity of the Arthropods there are many different types of feeders ranging from Herbivores to Carnivores.


  1. Respiration:


  • There are three major forms of respiratory systems found among the Arthropoda:
    • __________________: Aquatic Arthropods such as the Class Crustacea contain Gills as they need to respire under water
    • _____________________________: Book lungs can be found in the Class Arachnida.       They are comprised of stacks of alternating _________ sacs and _______________________ filled tissues. This resembles a closed book. They are connected to the outside world by small openings.
    • A _________________________________: Terrestrial Arthropods such as the Class Insecta have a tracheal system consisting of ________________________ and ___________________. The _______________________ are small openings in the exoskeleton that can be opened and closed to allow gas exchange. Once oxygen has entered the _______________________ it travels along the many ______________________ to all of the body tissues. Only in some Arthropods does the hemocyanin function to transport the oxygen to all of the tissues


  1. Internal Transport:


  • Arthropods have an _________________________________________
  • They have a large internal cavity called a _____________________ that is filled with ________________________ (Arthropod blood)
  • There are a series of ________________ that run along the ______________ side of most Arthropods
  • The hearts pump the ________________________ from the abdomen to the head through the Arthropod’s only blood vessel called the ______________
  • Once the __________________________ enters the _______________ it leaves the _______________ and simply fills the spaces between the tissues.
  • It then flows back to the __________________organs at the posterior end of the body where it washes over the organs in order to transport ______________________ to all of the Arthropod’s tissues
  • Once the hemocyanin reaches the hearts it is pumped forward again


  1. Excretion:


  • Undigested food is passed out of the ______________ which is located at the end of the _________________________
  • Insects (and some other Arthropods) have special organs called ______________________________________ located around the stomach
  • These _________________________________ are threadlike structures that collect metabolic wastes from the hemocyanin that is washing over the organs
  • The metabolic wastes are transported into the _________________________ where they mix with undigested food
  • The wastes are released from the ________________


VII. Response:


  • The Arthropods contain a fairly large ______________ in their head
  • The brain controls the rest of the body by sending signals down a large ____________________________________
  • Arthropods have many specialized segments used for sensing an responding to their surroundings
  • The most easily recognized features are their ____________________ and their __________________________________
  • The _______________________:
    • The antennae are used to sense and respond to __________________
  • The _________________:
    • Insects and Crustaceans have incredibly advanced eyes
    • Their eyes are unlike human eyes because they ___________________________
    • Unlike our human eyes the Insect eyes are made up of thousands of individual units that each provide a __________ of light to the brain
    • The brain then interprets the array of light as a __________________ image
    • The eyes cannot focus so the image is usually course and the eyes are mostly used to detect __________________________
  • Arthropods can also sense and respond to:
    • ______________________________: The ____________________ and ___________________ parts of some Arthropods are able to detect differences in chemicals and allow them to Taste and Smell such as the Crustaceans
    • ______________________: Some Arthropods contain special structures called _______________________ at the base of their antennae that allow them to balance such as the Crustaceans and the Insects
    • ______________________: Some Arthropods have actually evolved structures called a ________________________. This is a membrane found on either side of the abdomen and that detect sound vibrations.


VIII. Movement:


  • Arthropods are incredibly _____________________
  • Due to the rigid ______________________Arthropods must have _________________ in order to move.       This is how they have received their name Arthropoda, “Jointed Feet”
  • Most Arthropods contain many more ____________________ than humans that help them perform all of their intricate movements
  • There are many forms of movement seen in the Arthropods ranging from the segmental movement seen in Millipedes to the ability to fly seen in some of the Insects and to the ability to swim seen in some Crustaceans


  1. Reproduction:


  • Arthropods contain both _________________ and are not _________________________
  • In Insects the male fertilizes the female by releasing sperm into the female’s sperm ____________________________.
  • The egg is released from the female out of the body through an _______________________ near the anus
  • Most Insects undergo ________________________ and go through ___________ distinct stages
    • The _______________: Released from the ovipositor
    • The ________________: Many Arthropods contain a larval stage that doesn’t resemble the adult form at all. Many of us recognize this stage as grubs, caterpillars or maggots (the larva of flys)
    • The __________________: The pupa is a nonfeeding stage following the larval stage. An example is the cocoon
    • The __________________


  1. Ecological Roles:






posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

No comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *