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Immune Notes

The Acme “Us and them: Immuno Review”


It is a few days till the exam…you have studied hard. The quiz results are both good and bad…so..it is now the final minutes of the game…you have these options: give up, hope for divine intervention, waste time trying to write answers on a micro chip or apply your wit and will to answer these questions…


Part One:

  • Components of us

How does our body recognize something, which is foreign?

The primary factor is recognizing some “thing”…be it alive or not..which does not fit the patterns we normally sense. For example..what is some thing new? It is some thing that comes along that we have not seen before. More often than not, the first responses is to go “pleech” or “ I don’t want to learn this” or “ that is gross”. So the human body has both a means to reject or accept all thing foreign. The foreign feature is known as an antigen.


So to review..

What is an antigen and where could they be found?

How is it recognized?

What cells are responsible for

  1. identifying a foreign particle
  2. responding to a foreign particle
  3. labeling a foreign particle
  4. removing a foreign particle
  5. remembering a foreign particle


How would you compare:

An antigen to an antibody

A cell mediated response to a antibody or humoral response

  • What is the similar and unique cells of both responses?
  • What does one response make that the other does not?
  • What cell types would increase with either response?
  • What are some true and false comparisons regarding T and B cells?

A passive immunity to an active immunity

  • Which one last for a longer time
  • What type of immunity do you get when you are born?
  • Why do antibiotics only provide a temporary solution?






A virus is said to be both alive and not alive. They are so small that they cannot be filtered but they do form crystals. They have proteins, which means they must have DNA. This DNA can mutate. Because virus can change what proteins they can make with their DNA, this explains why we have so many types of flus. Yet is a virus alive? Does it produce any metabolic products or grow? What is it that signals the body that something foreign is there?


  • What surrounds virus genetic material?
  • Can this structure change and how?
  • When are virus active and not active and what words are used to describe that?
  • How are virus classified?
  • What is the big deal about “interferon”?
  • How do viruses enter the body?
  • What is the scoop with retroviruses?



Now bacteria are alive. Put simply they (bacteria) are soup in a bag in a box. Yet we all know there are lots of types of soups. Likewise, though bacteria are a simple life form labeled as “prokaryotes” there are a lot of forms of diversity. From simple pathogens to photosynthetic nitrogen fixers, the Monera are a diverse bunch of critters.


With this in mind..

  • How many groups can bacteria be classified into?
  • What are the features…that is structures folks..that all prokaryotes share?
  • What are structures       you would or would not find in Monera?
  • How do bacteria reproduce…asexually?
  • What is a form of reproduction that is almost like sexual reproduction?
  • What is the deal with strept, staph, cocci, baccilli and sphirrilium?
  • What is the difference between gram positive and gram negative?
  • How can bacteria survive harsh climates?
  • Can you thoroughly compare anaerobic to aerobic respiration?
  • What are the differences between photosynthesis and chemosythesis?
  • What are the differences between photosynthesis and respiration?
  • What are plant like features in bacteria?
  • What are the interactions implied by the words parasitic, saprophytic, symbiotic, pathogenic, and mutalism?
  • What type of bacteria seeks out light and what is this response called?



Putting it all together….


So a virus or a bacteria enters a body…no it is not a joke..


  • What cells recognize the intruder?
  • What cells turn on and off an immune response?
  • If an intruder start using host fuel, what type of intruder would it be?
  • What is the big deal about monoclonal antibodies ( source, function..and usage’s)
  • What are four specific steps of an antibody or humoral response?
  • What are four specific steps of a cell mediated response and how could you evaluate or see these steps occurring with cell populations or biochemicals
  • What is the difference between a primary and secondary response


So you have a fatal virus…

What would be some examples?

Why would one virus be more virulent than another? For example small pox to HIV?


Possible cures…

What are problems with over using antibiotics?

What is the difference between a vaccine and an antibody?

Comparing types of immunity, which would provide the best or worst immunity

Getting sick

Getting a vaccine with dead pathogen

Getting a vaccine with weak pathogen

Getting an antibody that marks a specific pathogen


What is an allergy?


Finally..you have spent all this time studying this stuff…

Some one then states on the news..

“It is important to learn about the immune response”…could you now debate the pro and cons of this statement?

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio and have No Comments

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