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Bio 11 SS Cnidarian and Porifera Review

Porifera and Cnidaria Exam Review




  • How many types of Porifera are there and how are they classified?
  • What are the Characteristics of poriferans (sponges) ?
  • What are the structures called on collar cells that move to create currents, moving water in and out of the sponge?
  • Which class of Poriferan contains spongin in its body?
  • What are the Characteristics of poriferans (sponges) ?
  • Adult sponges cannot move – how do sponges manage to colonize new areas?
  • Why does a sponge need to pump water through its body?
  • A sponge skeleton is made up of: (not calcium carbonate but the name of the structures)
  • The way that Poriferans (sponges) obtain food is by this process:
  • What is the middle layer of a sponge called?
  • In sponges, which cell type has flagella?
  • Through which structure does water enter a sponge? (not a pore)
  • The cells that move around the in the body of the sponge and ingest food particles are called?
  • Water movement through a sponge would follow which path?
  • Where does fertilization occur in a sponge?





  • Can you recognize the structures of a cross section of a polyp and a medusa?
  • A jellyfish can sting even after it is dead. How can this be?
  • How do Cnidarians get rid of metabolic wastes?
  • Characteristics of cnidarians (jellyfish, etc)?
  • A concentration of nerves and sensory organs at one end of an organism is called?
  • What is the advantage of a medusa form of a cnidarian (2)
  • What part of the Cnidarian life cycle is formed by budding?
  • What are the stinging cell and stinging structures called in a hydra called?
  • Which kind of digestive and circulatory system do Cnidarians have?
  • Which kind of symmetry do Cnidarians have?
  • What is the inner layer of cells in Cnidarians called?
  • Which layer of cells is missing in Cnidarians?
  • Which part of a Cninarian’s life cycle is sessile?
  • Some hydras are said to be “hermaphroditic”, what does that mean?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Cnidaria and have No Comments

Bacteria review


Acme Review for Virus, Immune and Bacteria Test




  • How are viruses classified?
  • What are the structures of a bacteriophage?
  • What are the structures within a retrovirus?
  • How do you identify the difference between viral capsid and viral envelop?
  • What type of viral cycle make makes cancer?
  • When is a virus virulent?
  • What is a retrovirus and how does it work?
  • What happens in a lytic cycle of a virus?
  • What happens in a latent cycle of a virus?
  • What happens in a mutagenic cycle of a virus?
  • In animal viruses the viral envelope is made of what?
  • What is a prophage



Immune system

  • What are examples of nonspecific defenses in your body?
  • What is a humoral response?
  • What is a cell mediated response
  • What is the difference between a T Cell and B Cell?
  • How is HIV related to T helper cells?
  • Why do pharmaceutical companies have to keep creating new flu vaccines?
  • How does a vaccine work?
  • How does the immunes system work against viruses?
  • How does the immune system work against bacteria?
  • What is the difference between passive and active immunity?
  • Can you use antibiotics against a virus? Why?
  • What is a monoclonal antibody and how can it be used?
  • How is a plasma cell related to a memory cell?





  • How are bacteria (eubacteria) classified?
  • What are bacteria that can survive without oxygen?
  • What is a chemosynthetic bacteria and how could it be identified?
  • What are two properties of all monera?
  • What is prokaryote and what features do they have?
  • What is a whip like structure used for locomotion in bacteria?
  • What is a saprophyte?
  • What are the differences between fermentation and cellular respiration?
  • An organism that produce it’s own food is called what?
  • Rod shape bacteria are called what?
  • In a diagram, can you explain primitive sexual reproduction in a bacteria?
  • Most bacteria reproduce by what process?
  • What is an endospore and how does it work?
  • Why has the classification of kingdom Monera switched into Archeo, Eubacteria and cyanobacteria?
  • New stem cells research is now inserting DNA into bacteria, why could this be both good and bad?
  • If you were infected by a gram negative bacteria what would you be prescribed?
  • If you were infected by a gram positive bacteria what would you be prescribed?
  • Explain four reasons why bacteria can be helpful to humans?
  • What is the difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant?
  • If a chemical is released by a bacteria and it is then denatured by heat and then injected into a host, it is called what?
  • What does a vaccines made of ?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Bacteria Vocab

Bacteria Vocab List


1. Aerobic  
2. Anaerobic  
3. Anaerobic respiration  
4. antibiotic  
5. Antitoxin  
6. Autotrophic  
7. Bacillus  
8. Binary Fission  
9. Blue green algae  
10. Cell wall  
11. Chemosynthetic  
12. Chemotaxia  
13. Chemotherapy  
14. Cocci  
15. Conjugation  
16. Endospore  
17. Fermentation  
18. Flagella  
19. Heterotrophic  
20. Pathogen  
21. Penicillin  
22. Photo taxis  
23. Photosynthetic  
24. Pplo  
25. Respiration  
26. Rickettsia  
27. Spirochetes  
28. Staphylococci  
29. Streptococci  
30. Streptomycin  
31. Toxin  
32. Vaccine  
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Micro Bio,Microbio and have No Comments

Bio 11 SS Test One Review questions

Good news…only multiple choice and or true or false.

Only on Taxonomy, Scientific method and Five Kingdoms.


Test One Review:


Content: Scientific Method, Taxonomy and Five Kingdoms



  1. A binomial name or scientific name consist of a _____ followed by the _____.
  2. Which is capitalize?
  3. Species are classified based upon what factors?
  4. Would you classify an organism based upon it’s evolutionary relationship? Why or why not?
  5. Starting from Kindom to genus and species, how would you classify a human?
  6. K, P, C,O, F, G, S ( Know each step)
  7. What is the correct order of organisms starting from the most diverse to the most specific?


There are four theories (posted on the board)

  1. Which discusses cells but not their metabolism?
  2. Which discusses the genetic code and how it is displayed?
  3. Which discuss the opposite of abiogenesis?
  4. Which discusses and provides a mechanism for changes with time?


Five kingdoms

  1. A prokaryote is a cell without a nucleus. Which two phyla could be part of this group beginning with M.
  2. Moss and Ferns belong to which kingdom?


Scientific Method

  1. Is a hypothesis a tentative explanation of a result or an observed phenomena?
  2. What is the distinction between a theory, law or principle?
  3. Starting with an observation, what is the order of inquiry to make a theory?
  4. Science is many things including many terms such as an understanding of nature, explored through experimentation and even subject peer review in journals, can conclusions of these labs change?


  1. The way in which scientist explore the natural world is through a set of steps know as the _____.


  1. Within each hypothesis are two word, if and then and these two terms refer to the independent and dependant variable. What is the role of a control?


  1. Where would a scientist publish or discuss results of an experiment?
  2. Which is more “true” a law or a theory? Why?


  1. A hypothesis can be used both in science and within moral or ethic debates, which is testable?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Bio 11 Essay Assignment

The Bio 11 Essay Assignment:


Your mission is to take a quote about life and then link that quote to either six activities of life or six big ideas. This is a means to bridge science with day-to-day references about life.


Sample Paths to follow: “The academic path”


  • Select a quote

“ Life is not an exact science, it is an art”

  • Decide if you want to support the quote or challenge it.
  • Outline your essay


Challenge or support quote:



Support quote:


  1. Quote was written in late 1800’s when biology was natural history.
  2. Many biological theories and or facts are found by luck.
  3. Science begins with observation, so does art
  4. Both art and science are means of interpreting what is in front of your eyes.
  5. “Art provides what nature cannot”




Challenge Quote:


  1. Biology is becoming more “scientific” with better mean of interpreting biochemistry, anatomy and remote sensing.
  2. Life has a pattern and theories such as evolution.
  3. Life has activities of life.



Make a brief Outline Essay


  • Introductory paragraph:
    1. Quote
    2. If life is an art verses an exact science then how do activities of life show this?
    3. Pair activities: Locomotion and Metabolism, Reproduction and Growth, Response and repair.
    4. Which path of argument to follow


  • Paragraph 2: Metabolism and locomotion
    1. Every living thing needs energy to move either large structures like limbs or even fluids within tissues.
    2. How much movement and energy that is needed is not an exact amount.
    3. A dancer may need more energy that another form of artist. Each day offers a different challenge so sometimes energy is stored or an organism may stay in one place.
    4. Can measure both activity and caloric intake and yet it is not always exact.


  • Reproduction and Repair
  1. Reproduction can involve both sharing of genetic information and dividing   your own information.
  2. An artist may share ideas or work on their own. Growth can happen quickly or over a long time.
  3. Exact growth can be measured and yet many variables can affect it.
  4. Reproduction is not always predictable and may have behaviors such as spiders that seem both odd and artistic


  • Response to stimuli and repair.
  1. Some time one gets lost in their thoughts and ideas chasing an artistic idea and forgets to look up.
  2. Slow response to stimuli to response time and now you body needs to repair scraped skin.
  3. More advanced cephalization allows for better way to adapt to stimuli which may mean less repair


  • Conclusion:
  1. Issue with exact is difficult because life is always changing
  2. Artist may be able to adapt and perform in the moment much like simple living things.
  3. In all activities of life, there is an unknown outside the realm of exact numbers and formula.
  4. “Art provides what nature cannot”



Plan B: Fun path to follow “ Confusion is the sign of growth”


Premise: Biology big ideas and life as a student



In high school, each student attempts to adapt and learn new things each day. Like science, we observe and attempt to make sense of things that do not seem to make sense. Perhaps by looking at big ideas of biology, one can see that “wisdom of insecurity” may be a way to calm confused thoughts.


  • Two ideas: Change and continuity
  1. In biology change with time is evolution and continuity is about exchanging genetic material.
  2. In high school, students evolve from dazed grade eights to focused grade 12’s.
  3. There is always “drama”. Is the “drama” due to adaption or wrong genetic pairings? Is the confusion due to misinterpreting the data?
  • Two ideas: Diversity and interactions
  1. In biology diversity and unity is how living things are different and similar due to genetics, species formation and reproduction.
  2. In high school there are “clichés” which some time interact in both positive and negative fashions.
  3. In high school some students are attempt to adapt and yet they may not know how to interact.
  4. Sometime failure to interact or accept one’s own diversity may lead to confusion and yet you can change with time and grow from the experience.
  • Homeostasis and structure and function
  1. In high school you attempt to seek balance and yet practical experience may not be there.
  2. In biology, living things maintain “balance” by increased cephalization or new structures to adapt to situations and yet sometimes, dogs bark simply because they do not know what to do.
  3. The only way to learn about balance is to experience unbalance.



  1. Both in biology and in high school, students are told a lot of information. Sometimes it makes sense and other times, you really have to wonder where algebra and life connect. Confusion is an attempt to make sense of the nonsensical. A student learns to adapt and overcome life situation and that is growth. Likewise, every living thing is responding to stimuli and hopefully the response works. If it does not work, then there is always another chance.
  2. Use six big ideas to validate how each day in high school is an attempt to make sense of the nonsensical and so there is growth (an activity of life)



Take home message:


  • Some times you have to translate information from one venue to another. It is important to be able to show literacy by being able to link your ideas with others.
  • I am not an English teacher, and yet I write stuff every day. I am not concerned about you linguistic skills sets or your panache to baffle me with large volumes of bovine feces. Keep run on sentences to a minimum. Use the occasional comma and period and check your spelling.
  • This challenge is to be evaluated on your ability to reflect upon either your own experience or with things that you have learned this year. Try to seek positive paths and enjoy the experience. If you show that you have taken the time to think and your writing shows that you have given 100% then your mark with reflect that.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes and have No Comments

Molusca and Arthropoda Study guide

Molusca and Arthropoda Study Guide:



Activity of life Molusca Arthropoda
Traits ·      What are five traits for molusca and which is found in all molusca

·      What is a trait that both molusca and arthropods have yet round worms do not have?

·      What are 8 traits shared by all arthropoda?


·      What is a shared structure or structures that arthropoda and molusca share?


Respiration ·      What are the breathing structures in molusca? ·      What are three organs and strategies for arthropods
Regulation ·      Which molusca has the most cephalization?

·      What are three ways that a molusca can adapt and protect themselves?


·      What are three types of insect learning?
Reproduction ·      Are molusca hermaphrodite or single sex?

·      Why would a left twisting snail find it hard to reproduce?

·      What structures to squids have for reproduction?



Why are larvae found in different habitat than adults?


Why do arthropods have such unique mating rituals?

Excretion ·      Why does nitrogen waste change from ammonia or uric acid to urea in arthropods and molusca ·      Where does excretory waste go in a grasshopper
Nutrition ·      What are the three ways that molusca can get food?

·      What is a unique rasping structure in gastropods?

·      How could a sea snail suck the visceral mass out of a clam?

·      What structures do squids have to digest food?

What do grasshoppers eat that makes their blood green and sweat?


Why do insects need to eat so much energy?


Growth ·      How is a shell made and from what tissue?

·      What is a pearl?

·      How are molusca valueable to humans (3 ways)?

·      How could squids get to be so big?

·      What is “molting” and why is it dangerous?

·      What are the three types of metamorphosis and what are creatures called for complete metamorphosis?

·      What are 2 disadvantages for molting?

Transport ·      Do molusca have open or closed circulatory systems? ·      What are 4 reasons that the grasshoppers circulatory system is unique?
Synthesis ·      What is “super glue” and which molusca is it found in? Which sex makes a spider’s web?


Feature Creature Squid


Insects and grasshopper
  Can you label a diagram of a squid? (exterior and interior)


Can you label a diagram of a grasshopper? (internal and exterior)


Vocab Gladius  
  Book lung  
Check which phylum features are found. Visceral mass  
Think about structure and function. Compound eye  
  ·      Simple eye  
  ·      Pinchers  
  ·      Malpigian tubules  
  ·      Ovipositor  
  ·      Thorax  
  ·      Metathorax  
  ·      Coxa  
  ·      Spiracles  
  ·      Air sacs  
  ·      Gills  
  ·      Mantle  
  ·      Shell  
  ·      Antennae  
  ·      Jointed appendages  
  ·      Pupa  
  ·      Nymph  
  ·      Visceral mass
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Arthropoda,Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Mollusca and have No Comments

Bio 11 Worm Test Check

So here are some questions to test how good your study card is..

Last minute guide for worms


  • What do hydras have in common with flatworms?
  • What is a structure that all worms share for eating?
  • Which worm has closed blood vessels and why is this important?
  • Which worms have a digestive system that goes one way from mouth to anus?
  • Which worms do not have a one way digestive system?
  • What is a fluid filled mesoderm lined body cavity called?
  • How are worms ranked from simple to most complex?
  • How are annelida worms different from other types of worms.
  • What is the big deal about body segmentation?
  • How do worms “breath”?
  • How do earth worms grind up their food and where?
  • It is a “dorsal saddle like swelling”, what is it called and where is it found?
  • What are examples of nematode worms, using common names.
  • What is a concentration of nervous tissue called?
  • Which worm has a “scolex” and what is it used for?
  • It is found only in nematode worms and it is not found in flat worms nor annelida worms. What is it? Clue..It is some times referred to as an evolutionary development.
  • What is the most developed organ system in a tape worm?
  • Why does a tapeworm never have to worry about digesting food?
  • With proper sewage system, which worms can be controlled?
  • What is the order of organs in an earthworms digestive system? Why is this unique?
  • How are segments in an earthworm segmented separated?
  • What is the name and function of a reproductive structure in tapeworms?
  • What is the function of cuticle?
  • What is a coelom full of?
  • What is the use for a hydrosketon?
  • What is cephalization?
  • What are the structures and function of a closed circulatory system and which worm has one?
  • How are the three types of worms ( flat, round and segmented) different when it comes to digesting food? Which would be the most advanced and why?
  • If an organism forms a brain or has cephalization, how could this be linked to mobility?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Worms and have No Comments

Bio 11 Worm Study Guide

Bio 11 Worm Lab Sheet                          Name____________________________


Your mission is to dissect a worm.

Using your “map” or diagram of worm anatomy, you will prepare a study guide which you can use for the lab quiz.


The lab quiz will be pictures of actual dissections or pictures of live worms.


You will also need to be able to discuss 5 systems of the worm.


  1. Digestive system
  2. Circulatory System
  3. Excretory System
  4. Nervous System
  5. Reproductive System


A system is a group of organs, composed of tissues and cells. You will need to identify specific organs and their function.


You should also answer the following questions (from “Biology Corner”)


  1. What is the name of the pumping organs of an earthworm?
  2. Trace the parts of the digestive tract through which food passes.
  3. Which parts of the earthworm serve as its brain?  How are these parts connected to the rest of the body?
  4. Which of the parts of the worm’s body that you saw are included in the excretory system?
  5. How can you find out whether an earthworm eats soil?
  6. Among the earthworm’s structural adaptations are its setae. How do you think the earthworm’s setae make it well adapted to its habitat?
  7. How is the earthworm’s digestive system adapted for extracting relatively small amounts of food from large amounts of ingested soil?
  8. Your dissection of the earthworm did not go beyond segment 32.What will you observe if you dissect the remainder of the worm to its posterior end?
  9. On a separate piece of paper, ( or your study guide) draw and label the parts of the earthworm you observed, and color code the systems. Use green for the reproductive system, yellow for the digestive system, blue for the excretory system, and red for the nervous system.
  10. During mating, two earthworms exchange sperm. Fertilization is external, and cocoons are produced from which the young eventually emerge. Refer again to steps 5 and 11, where you located the earthworm’s reproductive organs. Use a reference to identify the role of each organ in the reproductive process of the earthworm. On a separate paper, summarize your findings.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven Notes,Worms and have No Comments

Bio 11 (2016-17) Worms 2 May 24th

Bio 11 (2016-17) Worms 2                 Date May 24, 2017



Last lessons Objective



1.   Worms (that are flat)

2.   Drawing and life cycle

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Round worms (Nematoda)

2.   Segmented (Annelida)



Number One

Key Points for round worms

1.   Pseudocoelomate

2.   Full digestive system

  1. Parasitic.
  2. Unsegmented.
  3. Complex cuticle without cilia.
  4. Intermal fertilization.
  5. 1cm to 8m in length.
  6. No circulatory system.
  7. Alimentary tract present.


Notes on Nematoda

10.                 See gap notes and check green duotang


Filarian worms in the eye



worms in face



Guinea Worm disease




Student youtube about nematode



Nematoda Classification




Number Two




What is new?

1 coelomate

2 Closed circulatory system with hemoglobin

3 hermaphroditic with internal fertilization

4 waste management via nephridia

5 segmentation

6 ectoparasite

7 hydroskeleton and dorsal pore

8 Advancement of muscle control

9 More complex cephalization


What is the big deal about earthworms?



Annelida Classification



Porifera to Annelida



Diversity of things



Using leeches for medicine



Science of leeches




Sample Annelida: “the earth worm”


10 facts about earthworms




Number Three

Prep for earthworm lab

Earthworm Anatomy



virtual dissection



Text book Reference Chapter Twelve
You tube Reference  

Comparing nematode to annelida




Practice quiz and worksheets :Annelida



Practice quiz and worksheet: Nematoda



Comparison youtube





Take Home Message It is ok…we found the worm!
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline,Worms and have No Comments

Bio 11 Reptile Gap Notes

Biology 11

Name: ____________________ Date: __________ Block: _____


Class Reptilia: Animals that Creep



  • (L. reptilis = “__________”)
  • evolved from _______________ about _______________ years ago


Make a venn diagram to compare Reptile to Amphibian

















Major Groups of Reptiles

  1. _________________________
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________
  4. _________________________



Reptile Adaptations



  • Many have strong, bony skeletons able to ___________________________
  • most have _____ limbs and feet with __________



Body Covering

  • skin is _____ and _______________
  • covered with hard __________
  • functions in protection from _______________ (drying out) and from _______________.



  • breathe _____
  • depend on __________ for obtaining oxygen


  • has _____ chambers (like that of _________)
  • ventricle partially divided by a ___________
  • when the ventricle __________, the opening in the septum __________ and the ventricle is temporarily divided into _________________.
  • this reduces the mixing of _______________ and ____________________


Circulatory system

= _____________ system.

  • The left half of the ventricle receives __________ blood from the ____________, and pumps it to __________.
  • The right half of the ventricle receives __________ blood from the _____________, and pumps it to _______________.



  • in most reptiles, wastes are excreted as _______________, which is insoluble and needs very little water to produce
  • this allows reptiles to survive without drinking water. They get enough water from _______________.
  • therefore many reptiles can survive in _________________________
  • turtles excrete wastes as __________ (similar to __________).



  • Most reptiles lay eggs covered with shells that are _______________
  • the egg contains __________________________ for the developing embryo
  • has a shell which makes it _______________
  • can be laid on __________
  • Most reptiles are ___________ (their eggs are laid and incubated _________________)
  • some reptiles are __________ – they give birth to _______________.
Name Function
yolk sac  



because egg-shells are impervious to both water and sperm, _______________ is required.

  • reptiles have a __________ – a posterior opening shared by the __________, __________, and __________ tracts. The word comes from Latin, and means ” __________”.
  • most reptiles have _______________, which are stored inside the body.
  • male crocodilians and turtles have a __________
  • lizards and snakes have a pair of __________ (penes = plural for _________)


Did You Know?

The incubation temperature of eggs determines the sex in many reptiles. Nests with high temperatures produce more females, and nests with lower temperatures produce more males.

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Chordata and have No Comments