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Bio 12 (2016-17) L 50 Synapses

Biology 12 (16-17) L 50                                                     Date: May 10


Last lessons Objective  

1.   Review Neuron structures

2.   Action Potential

3.   Action Potential Sheets




Today’s Objective 1.   Review Axon Potential

2.   Synapses

3.   Neurotransmitters


Topic One Translating what is happening in the axon to a graph of action potential

Practice Quiz


An amazing demonstration including smells, sounds and Mr. C using his cell phone to call a higher power.

Don’t forget

Salty Ba Na Na..

Sodium in and Potasium out,

that’s what the Action potential wave is all about.



In class assignment

Synaptic Transmission

Two extra questions

·      Why do neurons need sugar?

·      Why does milk or calcium magnesium tablets help you relax?




How to enhance or block synapse

Written information


Crash Course : Neurons



A good set of 8 videos



AP Psych



Text Ref  



You tube And now a song from students at Stanford





Class Notes Seven steps of synapses.

Note: everyone forgets step 7!


Take Home msg Why does Mr. Brion hand out sugar in math class?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) L 48 Neurons

Biology 12 (16-17) L 45                                                     Date: May 4 th


Last lessons Objective 1.   Practice Renal quiz

2.   Intro to Nervous System



Today’s Objective 1.   Renal Quiz

2.   Neuron types

3.   Structure and function of cell parts

4.   Intro to action potential


Topic One Great work!  


It is a neuron and not a nerve!

Intro video



Tricks: There are five distinct cell structures that allow you to classify three neuron types.

Key questions:

Were is the cell body?

Which is longer, axon or dendrites?

Which cell types have myelin


2 minute lesson





How does a neuron transfer a message in the axon

So how does the movement of sodium and potassium make a “wave”


An electron signal


We focusing on the nature of an electrical signal.


This is a good animation.

So which way does the wave travel?

How is energy linked to neuron activity?

Why does the cell need to repolarize?

Can you find a BC provincial Question to see if you get this topic?



Text Ref  

Mader “Inquiry to life”


You tube  


Class Notes Types of neurons.

Action potential


Take Home msg



Neurons need sugar…why?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (2016-17) Lesson 43 March 27

Biology 12 (2016-17) Lesson 43                 Date March 27, 2016



Last lessons Objective




Components of Blood

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Examining a blood test report

2.   Introduction to parts of respiratory system

3.   Gas exchange



Number One

Interpreting Blood Hemography



Provincial 5 Q Quiz

Number Two

Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system.

Please note that there is a distinction between breathing and respiration.

What is respiration?


What is the difference between respiration and breathing?



Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system


Simulation of breathing


An Aussie clip on How the lungs work and lung disease


Please note:

·      The role of pleural tissues and specific proteins that allow for better absorption of oxygen.

·      The role of mucus and heating of external air.

·      The direction and role of cilia.

·      How respiratory infections are linked to anatomical locations of infection.

·      How is the respiratory system linked both to the digestive system and circulatory system?

·      Imagine getting fuel, transporting that fuel and then burning it.


Number Three

Carbon Dioxide gas exchange (the four point guestion)



a molecular view



an animated explaination



a lecture format



another lesson\lecture format with drawing




Key points

Fast verse slow absorption of carbion dioxide

The role of carbonic anhydrase

What occurs in the blood plasma verse the rbc

How does the body deal with broad range of carbon dioxide in the blood.


Text book Reference


Chapter 12.  
You tube Reference See above


Take Home Message  

5 Questions on Circulatory or Blood from Provincial Exams



In moments of stress, learn to breath..it will relax you!


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (2016-17) Lesson 42

Biology 12 (2016-17) Lesson 42                 Date March 10, 2016



Last lessons Objective




Components of Blood

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Unit J Components of blood

2.   Blood Types

3.   Introduction to Hemography



Number One

Prior to reading components of blood realize that your blood is a vivid picture of what is occurring within your body. You can see a chemical display of both regulatory molecules, waste molecules, nutrients and cell that regulate both inflammation and blood clotting.


Videos on Components of Blood



Blood Basics





Get credit for work by checking answer key to worksheet available at tutorial time.


Provincial 5 Q Quiz

Number Two

Blood Type (Power Point)

Video on Blood Type


Mystery about O negative blood.


Donating Blood




Number Three

Interpreting Blood Hemography



Text book Reference


Chapter 12.
You tube Reference Khan Academy

What is in blood



Bizzare History of blood transfusion



History of blood transfusion




Take Home Message Next class

5 Questions on Circulatory or Blood from Provincial Exams






Topics for next class

a)   Case studies for Hemography

b)   Inflammation and Blood Clotting


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) Lesson 33 Jan 20

Bio 12 (16-17) 33                                         Date Jan 20th,2017



Last lessons Objective




The small intestines lab

Absorption in the small intenstines

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Role of large intestines

2.   The “scoop on poop”

3.   Intro to digestive hormonal regulation



Number One

Key Points about the large intestines

a)   storage role, like stomach

b)   absorption of electrolytes, (sodium and potassium) and water

c)    large volume of probiotic bacteria that can help with vitamin K absorption

d)   Sensitive to stress

e)   Releases bicarbonate to change ph

f)     Produce specific antibodies

g)   Create a variety of forms of feces


Interactive notes




Video with review and quiz



Function and defecation




Number Two

The “scoop on poop”

Believe it or not, the most common question asked of patients in a hospital is “how is your bowel movements”. Creating feces is a majour clue as to homeostasis in the body.

So some clues

1)   There is no normal

2)   Check for colouration

3)   Size and shape do matter

4)   Frequency may vary

5)   Odor can change

6)   Issues with water (constipation and diahrea)

7)   Colour can be clue to fat, blood or degree of healthy GI tract

8)   When in doubt think..Hydration and fiber


·      http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/digestive/large-intestine

·      https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2015/10/the-scoop-on-poop-5-facts-you-should-know/

·      http://badgut.org/information-centre/a-z-digestive-topics/the-scoop-on-poop/


Poop and your puppy!


Turd Trivia



Number Three

Now we examine how the digestive system is regulated.


A) Hormonal regulation of Digestive sytem

Regulating the flow at the stomach

·      Hormones can control a feedback loop (positive or negative.

·      If the stomach is the dam where food first is stopped then it makes sense that hormonal regulation starts with the stomach.

·      So lets consider how a dam works.




Intro video



Deep water understanding








Notes from Stanford Med school!



Tricks with hormone regulation

1)   remember hormones in pairs, those that turn response on and those that shut it off.

2)   Name of hormones may include the tissue it is from (gastro for gut and gastrin)

3)   Remember magic numbers (5)


Questions to answer

1)   Which hormone is linked to which organ?

2)   How are hormones associated with type of food and or diet?

3)   Where do the hormones actions come into play?

Key Hormones

·      Gastrin

·      GIP

·      Secretin

·      CCK

·      Motilin


Piecing it together

·      Which hormone is linked to which organ source?

·      Which hormone is linked to specific nutrient in chime?

·      How could changing diet alter the types of hormones being secreted?

Text book Reference


You tube Reference Bio 12 quizlet (102 terms)


(121 terms)


(58 terms ..used this one in class)


(48 terms)




Take Home Message Get to know your poop. It is a great indicator of happy homeostatic endeavours.
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline,Biology 12 Practice Quiz References and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) 29 Dec 14th

Bio 12 (16-17) 29                                         Date Dec 14th



Last lessons Objective




Introduction to enzymes

Today’s Objectives  

1.   Inquiry based enzyme lab

2.   Lab outline

3.   Due Friday



Number One

In the last class we tested to find out how to use as spectrometer to select the actions of an enzyme. In this lab you will need to propose and carry out a test involving enzymes



Number Two

When writing up your lab, you need to do the following

Make sure to type up! Not hand written.

Title: What were you testing or examinining



State the purpose of your lab and provide a hypothesis and reason for the hypothesis. Cite a reference to show previous information about enzymes and the enzyme amylase.



Be very specific with this section, make sure to give precise measurement. Make sure to everything you used


Procedure (in point form)

Starting from the beginning, make sure to outline everything you did.

You may use this section to examine why experimental error occurred.

Imagine that if you picked up your lab, you would know exactly each step of the lab.

Assume nothing.



In this section record both qualitative and quantitative values.



Make a graph of your data. Include a title, x and y coordinates and use either a line or bar graph.


Discussion and Summary

To include:

·      Properties of the graph such as slope or if the graph is exponential and why

·      Discuss how your data and graph shows current understanding about enzymes and enzyme action.

·      You can even find a reference to compare your results with results found in your reference.

·      Discussion of possible experimental error.



To include:

·      Hypothesis of lab verses results

·      Experimental error

·      Next variable to check



Number Three

Online References


Enzyme Lab



Amylase Lab



Amylase lab



Distinct questions to answer in your discussion

·      What is the difference between using Iodine verses Benedicts solution?

·      Which enzyme would be subject to denaturing and why?


Text book Reference


Chapter 6  
You tube Reference Protein Denaturing Lab



Indicating sugar with iodine







Take Home Message A sailor noticed a sailboat with a feline on the end of boom. The boat was almost about to tip over. He pointed to it and said to his ship mates “Look…a cat a list!”



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) L 25 Dec 8th

Bio 12 (16-17) L25                              Date: Dec 8 2017


Last lessons


Class Notes or Information

1.   Role of Enzymes

2.   Action of enzymes and changes due to ph, heat, acid and heavy metal





Today’s Objective 1)   Metabolic pathways

2)   Key reactions that can be monitored ( amylase and peroxidase)

3)   Planning to use spectrometer



Number One

Metabolic Pathways


We are on page 5 of our notes!

Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within an organism.

Put simply, energy allows things to move.

Energy can be stored or used by the body.

Key players in the metabolic game of energy are ATP, Oxygen, ATP, Vitamins, Calcium and yes..Enzymes.


A cell can move, grow and reproduce. In each case you need energy.


Energy can be potential or kinetic


Potential is stored energy

Kinetic energy is linked to breaking down stored energy


Key terms: Anabolic (make) and Catabolic (break)


So simplify: I ate cereal and now I have energy.

a)   Glycolysis is the break down of sugar.

b)   By breaking down sugar, the body can convert products into ATP.

c)    By adding Hydrogen to Oxygen, the body has an efficient way to make ATP


To move you need energy, so does a cell.

In order, energy demands can be met by breaking down

a)   complex sugars to monosaccride, then to atp

b)   complex fats broken down to fatty acids can merge with sugar being metabolized.

c)    Complex proteins can be broken down and added to sugar metabolic pathway.


To break things down, you need energy.

You do not want to use more energy to break things down, than what you will get from catabolic pathways..

So we need enzymes!


See page 6 of notes


Khan explaination



Another video




Number Two

First of all a shout out for enzymes..

Bozeman Science



So how can we observe an enzyme reaction?


Note: Substrate plus enzyme will make product


If you change the amount of substrate, you need more enzyme.


If you have a functional enzyme it will make a product.

You can measure a variety of enzyme reactions by identifying the product.


Some easy enzyme reactions to monitor are:


Amylase reaction



Starch is a poly saccharide to break it down you can make into a disaccharide. What is the difference between amylase and maltase?


A story on amylase



Catalase Reaction



Peroxide (H2O2) bleaches your hair, cleans up a would but can affect your body. Catalase converts peroxide into water and oxygen!


Is there a metabolic relationship between amylase and catalase?



Number Three

If you change the structure of an enzyme, you will decrease the amount of product.

Some changes are permanent.

Some changes do not change the structure of the enzyme.


Lab with spectrometer and temperature




Sample amylase lab




Sample of a published amylase lab



Indicators and enzyme reaction products.


What does IKI bond to?

What does Benedicts solution bond to?




Text Reference Chapter 6, see chapter 6 practice quiz


Google hunt Mader Chapter quizzes






Class Notes References Chapter 6 in text  
Take Home message



How is meat tenderizer related to enzymes?
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 L18 Nov 9 2016

Bio 12 (16-17) L18                              Date: Nov Wed


Last lessons


Class Notes or Information

1.   Dialysis tube lab




Today’s Objective 1)   Lab Quiz

2)   Continue doing membrane diagram

3)   20 Multiple Choice Questions Quiz (Mon)

4)   Test on Wed 15


Number One

Lab Quiz feedback

Use evidence in your lab verses notes.


Number Two

Make sure to study all the ways that proteins work in membrane


Some helpful sites

·      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_protein

·      http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/plasma-membrane.html

·      https://quizlet.com/27193453/chapter-5-study-guide-membrane-structure-and-function-flash-cards/




Number Three

Test for both Membranes and Organelles will be on Wed the 16th of November



Prior to end of term, we will have one last exam of DNA,RNA and protein synthesis

Text Reference Chapter 3 and 4


Please complete membrane assignment

Google hunt  



Class Notes References Chapter Four in text
Take Home message



posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17) L 14 Oct Wed 25

Bio 12 (16-17) L14                              Date: Oct Wed 25


Last lessons


Class Notes or Information

1.   Cell membrane structures




Today’s Objective 1)   Collect data for osmosis graphs of sweet potatoe in salt and sugar solutions

2)   Understanding the difference between selectively permeable and semipermeable

3)   Comparing Active to Passive transport across cell membranes



Number One

Potato lab objective.

Collect data and make graph


Reference link



Would like to recruit two lab groups to do a full day run of data collection for Friday. Contact asap.


We may want to alter both the concentration of sugar and salt and change the shape of the potato



Number Two

In preparation for dialysis lab


Semi permeable verse Selectively Permeable

Movement across membranes with proteins


Modeling membranes



Comparison Youtube



Analogy youtube





Number Three

Passive, Facilitated verses Active transport


Step one: Passive compared to Active




nice graphic analogy of kayaking as a way to compare active to passiv transport




A good English video



A..um..written powerpoint.



A..hands on verbal description




Text Reference Chapter Three

Cell organelle practice quizzes

·      https://www.biologycorner.com/quiz/qz_cell.html

·      http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/story.php?title=cell-organelles-their-functions

·      http://anatomycorner.com/cell/cell_quiz.html

·      http://www.sciencegeek.net/Biology/review/U1Organelles.htm

·      http://www.cellsalive.com/quiz1.htm


Google hunt Cell metabolism and organelles

·      http://www.edu.pe.ca/gray/class_pages/rcfleming/cells/notes.htm

·      http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/organelles.html

·      http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes1.htm



Class Notes References Chapter Four in text  
Take Home message



We need to discover which makes a better French fry. Soak the whole potato with skin in salt water

Soak cut slices of potatoes in salt water

Soak cut slices of potatoes in fresh water

posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments

Bio 12 (16-17)L11 Oct 13th

Bio 12 (16-17) L11                              Date: Oct Tues 13


Last lessons Objective


Chapter 3


Class Notes or Information


1.   What is a cell made of?

2.   How are structures of a cell linked metabolism?

3.   How does a cell work





Today’s Objective 1.   How does a cell work project

2.   Let make atp



3.   Lets make protein flow chart



4.   Lets make fats and detox





Number One

When thinking about the mitochondria remember that you are burning sugar as fuel to make a new form of energy within the cell

·      http://www.marksdailyapple.com/managing-your-mitochondria/

·      https://experiencelife.com/article/the-care-and-feeding-of-your-mitochondria/




Number Two

When thinking about making protein structures consider where the code is coming from and what will be the end product. Will the protein stay inside of the cell or leave it? How are protein packaged within the cell?




Number Three

When making a fat or to detoxify an alcohol where do you go?



Text Reference Chapter Three



Google hunt Cell metabolism and organelles

·      http://www.edu.pe.ca/gray/class_pages/rcfleming/cells/notes.htm

·      http://biology.tutorvista.com/animal-and-plant-cells/organelles.html

·      http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes1.htm





Class Notes References    
Take Home message



Quiz next class on labelling a diagram and show a making of a biomolecule
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology 12,Biology 12 Lesson Outline and have No Comments