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Bio 11 Animal Exam Review sheet

Bio 11 Study Guide for Chordata

Some links to help you.


























How birds fly



Avian respirations






mammal evolution



Chordates (in general)

  1. How are chordates classified?
  2. What are the 4 characteristics of all chordates?
  3. Which two groups of chordates do not appear to show all the characteristics of a chordate?
  4. The adult seasquirt (Urochordata) has only one characteristic of chordates. What is it and why is a seasquirt still considered a chordate?
  5. Do all chordates have backbones?
  6. Which invertebrate group is linked to all chordates?
  7. Which chordate group is thought to be the earliest
  8. Of all the chordates, which has the most diversity?
  9. Which chordate group has the largest range of habitats?


  1. Where would you assume you would find the first chordate?
  2. What is the common name for urochordates?
  3. What is a “tunicate”?
  4. Why is a “sea squirt” called a sea squirt?
  5. If filter feeding was the first type of feeding for invertebrates, what do you suppose would be the first chordate feeding mechanism be?


  1. Why is a British Medical journal called and how is it linked to cephalocordates?
  2. What is the latin translation for cephalochordate?
  3. What characteristic do cephalocordates have that are common to all chordates?
  4. Do cephalocordates have backbones?
  5. Does the larvae of a cephalochordate the same as the adult?
  6. How does a lancet feed it’s self?


  1. What structure is missing in this group of fish?
  2. What is the distinction between a lamphrey
  3. Molusca have a radula, what do agnatha have and why?
  4. Are agnatha found in both marine and fresh water environments?
  5. What is the difference between a lamprey and a hagfish?
  6. Do these fish have hair?
  7. Which agnatha produces large volumes of slime? Why?




  1. What sort of bones to sharks have?
  2. What sense is the strongest in chondrichthyes?
  3. What is the difference between in vivo and in vitro?
  4. What is viviparous and omnivorous?
  5. What type of scales do sharks have?
  6. How are sharks scales linked to how knights held onto swords?
  7. Why are shark fins a popular food source in some cultures?


  1. How do fresh and marine fish differ in regards to how they excrete nitrogen waste?
  2. How many chambers does a fish heart have?
  3. What sort of scales do bony fish have?
  4. What are the challenges of living in either fresh or marine environments?
  5. Do fish sleep?
  6. What group of fish has the most diversity in species?



  1. How do amphibians breath?
  2. How many chambers do amphibians have in their hearts?
  3. How is this linked to how amphibians breath?
  4. What is the advantage of having metamorphosis in frogs?
  5. Why are amphibian good ecological indicators?
  6. Can amphibians hibernate? Why?



  1. What are the traits of snakes, lizards and turtles that make them a reptile and not an amphibian?
  2. What is an amniotic egg and what are the parts of an amniontic egg?
  3. How are yolk sac, allantois, chorion and amnion linked to reptilian reproduction?
  4. How do reptiles survive being an “ectotherm”?
  5. How does laying on a hot rock assist with reptile digestion?
  6. What are three adaptions of reptiles to move onto land?
  7. Can a reptile be a hermaphrodite or can it change it’s sex?


  1. What is a characteristic that is shared both with reptiles and birds?
  2. Why do birds have two sets of lungs?
  3. What is a feature of avian anatomy that only birds have?
  4. Are birds the only animals that have beaks?
  5. How many types of feathers do bird have? Why?
  6. What is the advantage of birds being “warm blooded”?
  7. What is the distinction between a solid and hollow boned bird?
  8. Was the first bird solid or hollowed boned?
  9. What are the structures of a “breathing egg” and what do they do?
  10. Why do birds such as a chicken have a fused pelvis and spine?
  11. Do birds have large bladders?




  1. What are the characteristics of a mammal?
  2. How could a whale be related to a human?
  3. What type of animal did early mammals evolve from?
  4. How are the three “groups” of mammals classified?
  5. Can a mammal lay eggs and sharp webbed claws?
  6. What are the three characteristics of Class Mammalia?
  7. What three strategies do mammals have for reproduction?
  8. The mammalian umbilical cord has evolved from which two parts of a reptilian egg?
  9. Are marsupials only found in Australia?
  10. What is a placenta and how is it linked to how long a female has their young inside of them?
  11. Why would the excretory system of an aquatic mammal be different than a mammal found in the desert?


posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Lesson Outline and have No Comments

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