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Animal Notes 2 ( Invert classification and activities of life)

Biology 11

Mr Carmichael

Name: ___________________________ Date: _________ Block: ___

 

 

The Invertebrates

Text page 304

 

  • An invertebrate is any animal that lacks a ______________.
  • Of the 36 animal phyla, only one phylum includes animals with backbones, the Vertebrates. This is the phylum ______________ which includes us humans.
  • Approximately 95% of all animals on earth are Invertebrates
  • We will study the following 8 Invertebrate Phyla:
  1. Phylum ______________ (Sponges)
  2. Phylum ______________ (Jellyfish, Anemone, Corals, etc.)
  3. Phylum ______________ (Flatworms)
  4. Phylum ______________ (Roundworms)
  5. Phylum ______________ (Segmented Worms)
  6. Phylum ______________ (Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squids, etc.)
  7. Phylum ______________ (Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, etc.)
  8. Phylum ______________ (Sea Stars, Sea Cucumbers, Sea Urchins, etc.)

 

  • In order to survive, all animals must be able to perform 7 essential functions:
  1. ______________: Obtain energy and nutrients for survival
  2. ______________: Consume oxygen and give off carbon dioxide
  3. ______________: Circulatory system to carry oxygen, food and wasted to and from cells of the body
  4. ______________: Eliminate poisonous waste from the body
  5. ______________: Sensory cells and nervous system to find food, spot predators and locate others of their own kind
  6. ______________: Either sexual (helps create genetic diversity) or asexual
  7. ______________: Musculo-skeletal system

 


Phylum Porifera: The Sponges

(Latin: porus = “pore”, ferre = “to bear”)

Pages 304-306

 

  1. Background:
  • Porifera means “animal with pores” and sponges have a lot of pores
  • Sponges are the ______________ and ______________ of animals

 

DID YOU KNOW!!!: The oldest known animal fossils are sponges

 

  • Many early naturalists thought that sponges were plants. In 1765 the internal water currents were observed which led to the realization that sponges are animals
  • There are over 5,000 different species, most live in salt water but a few species live in fresh water
  • Sponges have been used for thousands of years for cleaning and other purposes

 

  • 3 Major Classes:

There are three major Classes of Poriferans:

  1. ______________: Sponges containing Calcium carbonate (chalk) spicules
  2. ______________: Sponges containing Silica (glass) spicules
  3. ______________: Sponges containing Silica (glass) spicules and Spongin (~ 90% of all sponges)

 

  1. Body Plan/Structure:
  • ______________ – the most primitive multicellular animal group
  • ______________ or sometimes ______________ symmetrical body plan
  • Two types of openings:
    • ______________ (plural: ostia) = small pore in the side of the sponge where water flows ______________ to the sponge
    • ______________ (plural: oscula) = large opening at the top of the sponge where water flows______________ of the sponge
  • ______________ = central cavity surrounded by walls with thousands of pores
  • ______________ level of organization
    • no true tissues, no organs, muscles, nerves, mouth or digestive cavity
    • just groups or specialized cells that all serve different functions

 

  • Two cell layers:
    • ______________ outside
    • ______________ inside
    • ______________ = jelly-like layer in between the ______________ and the ______________ (not a cell layer)
  • Four types of specialized cells
    • Epidermal cells (______________) = Ectoderm
    • Collar Cells (______________) = Endoderm
    • Pore Cells (______________) = Line the Pores (Ostia)
    • Amoeba Cells (______________) = Roam through the ______________
  • Skeleton
    • Skeletons of some sponges are made of ______________ which are produced and secreted by the ______________
    • ______________ come in many shapes and sizes
    • Some ______________ are made out of ______________ (chalk) while others are made out of ______________ (glass)
    • Spicules can be woven together by protein fibres called ______________
    • Most sponges have both ______________ and ______________

 

III. Feeding:

  • Sponges are filter feeders: – eat primarily ______________
    • ______________ cells (______________) have ______________ which create a steady current of water through the pores (______________) and into the central cavity (______________)
    • As water enters the sponge through the pores (ostia) it passes the ______________ cells (Choanocytes)
    • Particles of food in the water are trapped by ______________ on the ______________ cells (Choanocytes)
    • ______________ cells (Choanocytes) engulf food and digest it
    • Undigested food passes to the ______________ in the ______________
    • The ______________ roam from ______________ cell to ______________ cell collecting nutrients and distributing it to other cells
    • Water exits through a the large hole at the top of the sponge (_________)

 

DID YOU KNOW!!!: A four inch tall sponge that is half an inch in diameter can filter up to 30 gallons of water a day

 

  1. Respiration:
  • The water current flowing through the sponge delivers oxygen to the sponge cells.
  • The cells take up the oxygen and release carbon dioxide through simple ______________

 

  1. Excretion:
  • The water current which flows through the sponge carries waste out of the top of the sponge (______________).

 

  1. Response:
  • Many sponges protect themselves by producing toxins
  • That make them unpalatable or poisonous to potential predators

 

VII. Reproduction:

  • Asexual:
    • ______________ – new sponge grows on parent then falls off to create a new animal
    • Sponges can ______________ after being pulled apart
  • Sexual
    • Eggs and sperm (______________) are released into the water
    • Most species are ______________– one individual possesses both eggs and sperm
    • Eggs and sperm are released at different times to assure ______________

 

DID YOU KNOW!!!: Sponges are the only animals that if broken down to the level of their cells, can miraculously reassemble and resurrect themselves

 

VIII. Movement:

  • Sponges are ______________ and do not move.
  • However, during sexual reproduction the fertilized egg develops into a free-swimming ______________ larva.       The larva attach to the bottom of the ocean and undergo ______________ to form the adult sponges

 

  1. Ecological Roles of Sponges:
  • Sponges help clean the water of the oceans
  • They provide food, homes and shelter for other organisms
  • They can form symbiotic relationships with algae
posted by Marc Bernard Carmichael in Biology Eleven,Biology Eleven Notes,Intro to inverts and have No Comments

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