September 2017

Socials 9 ‘Philosophes’ Research Blog Post

Please research a French Philosopher from the 16/17 century and create two paragraphs that discuss the philosophy and character. Please create 2 paragraphs to post to the blog. Post the bibliography on the bottom.

Due Date: Saturday Sept 30 @ 9:00 pm

18 comments to Socials 9 ‘Philosophes’ Research Blog Post

  • Voltaire, was the pen name of Francois Marie Arouet, a French author and philosopher. Voltaire’s clear style, sparkling wit, keen intelligence, and strong sense of justice made him one of France’s most famous writers. Voltaire’s best-known work is a philosophical tale that has been translated to more than one hundred languages. Voltaire was born on November 21, 1694, in Paris and his father was a lawyer too.He showed little bias to study law, and his schooling ended at the age of 16.

    In 1717, Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille for sarcastic verses that he may or may not have written mocking the government. He became wealthy in his early 30’s through inheritance. He also helped celebrate King Louis XV.In 1759, Voltaire bought an estate called Ferney on the French-Swiss border.He lived there until just before his death. Voltaire died in Paris on May 30, 1778.

    Sherman, Carol L. “Voltaire.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 30 Sept. 2017.

  • Thrishma Kumar

    I choose Malebranche as a french philosopher. He was born in Paris, France, 1635 and dies in 1715. People remember him by his style.He was a good writer but not the greatest philosopher.He was one of the followers of Descartes (1588-1672). He was very religious with his work.

    Malrbranche had seven good theories. They were “The Nature and Scope of the Dontrine”, “The Distinction between Ideas and Sensations”, “Descartes, Hugustine, and the Augment of Properties”, “Other Augments of Vision on God”,
    “Efficacious Ideas”, “Skepticism”, and “Objections and Replies”. One of his theories called Efficacious Ideas,
    was about “vision of god”. An other philosopher (Regis) started a fight with Malebranche and his theories, that he was talking so much about god in his theories. Malebranche decided to exploit Regis by giving Regis bad ideas and using them. After Malebranche started giving more bad ideas to more philosophers.His extensions more about souls.

    Bibliography:, ’17th century and Theologians”.

    Schmaltz, T.M,.2000. “Malebrance on Ideas and the Vision in God”. The Cambridge Companion
    to Malebrance. S. Nodler(ed.), Cambridge University Press.

  • Navreen Bains

    Mary Astell

    The first British feminist, Mary Astell was born on November 12th, 1666. She had grown up in a strict household. Her uncle had taught her mathematics and literature from a young age, but began studying philosophies and mathematics herself, shortly after he passed away. Overall, she learned philosophy, mathematics, modern languages, theology, politics and literature. As a family, they moved to London where Mary followed many leaders and religions. While battling breast cancer, she passed away at the age of sixty-four.
    As a political philosopher and a writer, Mary Astell expressed her knowledge to many women. She believed that women were just as important as men, “If all men are born free, how is it that women are born slaves?”. Women should have the opportunity to gain knowledge and be better companions. If people were cultivated, they’d be able to teach their children and live more wisely. Women would create a circle around her to listen to her ideas. Not only did they share their opinions, but they shared home remedies as well. As she grew older, Mary successfully created a charity school for girls who were poor.

    Gustafson, Melanie S. “Astell, Mary.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 25 Sept. 2017.

    “Astell, Mary.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. . 27 Sep. 2017 .

    “Mary Astell.” obo. . Date of access 27 Sep. 2017,

  • Muskaan Dhir

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a noted Swiss-born philosopher, writer and composer of the 18th Century Having lost his mother shortly after his birth, he was brought up by his father in an artisans’ neighborhood up to the age of ten. After being abandoned by his father, he grew up under the care of his maternal uncle under humiliating conditions. At sixteen, a freak incident saw him move to Savoy, where he came in contact with the Baronnesse de Warens, under whose guidance he turned into a man of letters. Later he traveled to Paris and took up writing as his career option. Although he gained recognition both as a writer and composer by his late thirties, it was his much later works, ‘Social Contract’ and ‘Emile’, which earned him his place in world literature. Prosecuted by the state for challenging the authorities, he spent his last days moving from place to place. Later, his works inspired generations of reformers to bring about changes in their own countries’ political systems.
    Rousseau’s first published work and first opera, “Les Muses Galantes,” led to a friendship with Voltaire. In 1950, he won an essay competition from the Academy of Dijon for his work “Discourse on Arts and Sciences,” which addressed the impact of the two subjects on the morality of man. His 1754 “Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality” asserted that an institutionalized life leads to the corruption of the natural goodness of man. In 1762, Rousseau published two extremely important works, “Emile” and “The Social Contract”. “Emile,” also known as “On Education,” contained Rousseau’s views on the monarchy and government as a whole. The work asserted that the institution of religion differed from the natural religion of man, which caused the churches to rise against him, banned his books in France and Geneva and caused him to have to flee from the authorities, who would arrest and persecute him for his beliefs.

    Cranston, Maurice. Jean-Jacques: The Early Life and Work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712–1754. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.

    Read more:

    Maurice Cranston, Jean-Jacques: The Early Life and Work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Chicago: 1991.

    Pettinger, Tejvan. “Jean Jacques Rousseau biography”, Oxford, Published 22nd December, 2016

  • Descartes, René (March 21, 1596- Feb, 11, 1650). Is called A dualist; claimed that the world consists of two basic substances. Matter is the physical universe, of which our bodies are a part. The spirit interacts with the body but is entirely distinct from it and can exist without it. In his view, the world-including its laws and even the truths of mathematics- was created by god, on whose power everything depends. Thought god as resembling the human mind in that both god and mind think but no physical being, unlike the mind in that, god is infinite and does not depend for his existence on some other creator.

    He considered the strongest reasons that can be used to show he could never be certain of anything. ‘Skeptical’ arguments included the idea that perhaps he might be dreaming, so nothing he seem to perceive be real. In other argument, he reflected, blamed, that god or some evil spirit was tricking his mind, causing to believe what was false. Observed that even if he were dreaming or being deceive he’s at least certain that he had thoughts, exist as a thinking being. Wrote “Clear and Distinct” perception of the mind, and introduced the famous Latin phrase ‘cogito ergo sum’ meaning ‘I think, therefore I am’. Descartes sought to establish that the physical world exist with the properties the philosopher assumed in his physics; continued to hold, yet that sensory appearances are ore often misleading.

    Nadler, Steven. “Descartes, René.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 29 Sept. 2017.

  • Precious Agbayani

    Denis Diderot
    1713-1784 (Encyclopedists)

    Denis Diderot was one of the heroes of the Enlightenment. He was born in Langres, France. On 1749 he was noticed by the king’s senses, He wrote a book in which he claimed that knowledge came from senses, not from heavenly revelation, For the king, this was provocative enough to jail him, He was imprisoned in a cell in the chateau de Vincennes.

    During his imprisonment, he was kept on his big project that he barely began. His idea was to bring the finest minds of the day and produce a series of books not only including biology, philosophy, ideas but also crafts and tradeskills, until then useful knowledge hasn’t been thought worth recording, but Didero sought out ordinary people to who nobody has previously listened. He attracted friends and enemies, with such friends in high places after 3 months he was released. He began working on books with his colleagues, In 25 years, 20 million words and 28 volumes were brought to life.

    YouTube, 24 Aug. 2014, Accessed 28 Sept. 2017.

  • Justine Woodward-Fenske

    Voltaire was a French philosopher from the16/17 century. He was born in 1694 and died in 1778. He was very witty and he work had a lot of style which made him one of France’s greatest philosophers. He was the youngest of 5 children of a middle-class family. He was educated by Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand in Paris, at the school he showed he had a gift for languages. He learned Latin, Greek when he was young and later became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English.

    He was against the Church. Voltaire also believed that an absolute monarchy would be good for society. He would also defend people because they were victims of superstition and bigotry.

    Mastin, Luke. (2008) The basics of Philosophy. Retrieved from

  • Noor Hingora

    Olympe de Gouges

    We have all heard of the famous french male philosophers. Philosophers like Jacques-Pierre Brissot,Voltaire, or Jean-Marie Roland. Their were many of them. All of them had something similar. They were all men. At the time a women philosopher was very rare. Though they did exist. Today I will tell you about a strong and powerful women. Her name was Olympe de Gouges.

    Olympe de Gouges was born on May 7, 1748. She was born “Marie Gouze” and had a normal little life. She was the daughter of a butcher and was very close to her mother. She was married on October 24, 1765 at the age of 16, to Louis-Yves Aubry and became Marie Aubry. Their marriage was an arranged marriage and she did not love him.
    Their marriage was short but they had one son. Pierre Aubry de Gouges was born 29 August 1766, a few months before his father Louis-Yves past away. After the death of her husband, Olympe de Gouges (who at the time was known as Marie Aubry) moves to Paris, where she changed her name to Olympe de Gouges and vowed never to marry again.

    Olympe de Gouges started writing plays and in 1784 she wrote the play “Zamore et Mizra ou l’Heureux naufrage,” a play about slavery. This play was followed by the play, “Mémoire de Madame de Valmount” a play that was written for the unfair treatment her mother received from her father. Olympe de Gouges started studying politics and speaking up about women rights. She started attending many salons. On September 5, 1791, Olympe de Gouges, published the pamphlet, “Decleration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen.” This pamphlet was written in a reply for the “Decleration of the Rights of Man” a document published by the National Assembly 2 years earlier. Olympe de Gouges believed in human equality and said that “ Women are free and lives equal to man in her rights.” She wasn’t in favour of execution of the king and so she joined the Girondins.

    The Girondins were a political group of moderate republicans in the French Revolution. They were a moderate thinking group who wanted to go to war with Austria but wanted to keep the king. They were fighting for power against the Jacobins, a radical thinking group which wanted to execute Louis XVI. The Girondins were overpowered and many were sentenced to death.After the down fall of the the Girondins, Olympe de Gouges was sentenced to the guilotonne, and was executed on November 3, 1793.


    “Olympe de Gouges.” Wind and Fly CTD,2017 accessed September 30,2017

    The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, “Olympe de Gouges”>biography accessed September 30,2017

    J,Ak, “Girondirs,Jacobins & SAN-Culottes,”>girondirs,jacobins,san-culottes accessed September 30,2017

  • Riea Singh

    Rene Descartes By: Riea Singh

    Rene Descartes was a well known mathematician and a philosopher. Born in La Haye on March 31, 1596. He had a fulfilling life by serving in the armies of two separate countries. He studied in Jesuit collage where he also invented analytic geometry. He also created many of his philosophical writing during that period of 1628-1649 in Netherlands.

    Rene Descartes , a dualist , believed that the world was made up of two substances he sought to be spirit and matter. Like us, he thought that our spirit-as in our mind- greatly differ from our matter, what he are physically are -bodies-. But on a different note, he believed that God was not like us and was something more. God didn`t depend on anyone to create him . However, we now know that everything is made up of something that was already there. For example humans, we were made up of our body parts, body parts are made of cells, and so on and so on… We didn`t just pop out on Earth magically. Descartes`s famous Latin line “cogito ergo sum” meaning ” I think, therefore I am ” reflects on this philosophy. This and many philosophies of his influenced many people.

    Rene Descartes was invited to temporarily visit Sweden but quickly died on Feb.11,1650 in Stockholm . He was presumed dead of an illness called pneumonia, but others later found out that he was poisoned by none other than a Catholic priest. He actually died by consuming a communion wafer that was laced by a lethal and poisonous substance called arsenic.


    Nadler, Steven. “Descartes, René.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 30 Sept. 2017.

    Davies, Lizzy,” Descartes was’ poisoned by a Catholic priest'” The Guardian/world,Feb.14,2010, Accessed 30 Sept,2017.

  • Jagnoor malhi

    16th to 17th century philosopher

    John Locke was one of the famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17th century. He is regarded as one of the founders of school of thought known as British empiricism he also made foundational contribution to modern theories of limited, liberal government. His most important work was the essay concerning human understanding. He set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and it’s acquisition of knowledge. His theory was we acquire ideas through our experience of the world and then the mind is able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. He says that knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.

    His emphasis on philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and it’s contents represented a new approach to philosophy. Also this essay contained a theory on limited government and how governments have obligations to their citizens. It also describes the limited power they had over their citizens. It also tells us that the citizens had the power to overthrow their government under certain circumstances. He also had powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration.

    Connolly J. Patrick. ‘“John Locke 1632-1704” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy/IEP. IEP. Accessed 30, Sept. 2017.

    By: Jagnoor Malhi

  • Sam Girard

    Their are many French philosophies but I’m going to focus on one named François-Marie Arouet also know as Voltaire.Voltaire didn’t like France because to him he thought it was old fashioned. Voltaire also didn’t like the Church almost all of his work was against France and the Church.The reason why he didn’t like the Church was because he thought people should be able to believe what they want to believe and not to be forced to believe something. Unlike a lot of other philosophies he believed that absolute monarchy was good.He belived that this was good because a country should be leaded by a wise and strong king.

    Voltaire was also a writer he wrote many books poems and plays. Since a lot his work was againsted France and the Church once the French Revolution started he blew up. Other then writing about France and the Church he wrote about people he new and places.Voltaire lived up to the age of 83 and was a hero to the French. When they were burying him he was not allowed to be buried in the Church since he didn’t believe in their god that was involved in the Christians life’s he just believed god didn’t interfere with people’s lives.

    Sam Girard

  • Alyssa Nguyen

    René Descartes

    René Descartes, a french philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Born March 31, 1596 La Haye to February 11, 1650, and educated at a Jesuit college. Descartes- pioneer in attempt to formulate simple,universal law of motion that govern all physical change. He was often called “father of modern philosophy. Descartes invented analytic geometry and developed detailed accounts of physical universe terms of matter and motion. His philosophy became known as Cartesianism, and one of the first key figure in scientific revolution.

    His philosophy was called dualist because he claimed the world consisted of two basic substances- matter and spirits. Also believed matter could be understood through simple concepts. His point of view of the world was created by god- whose power everything depended on. Sought to provide a foundation of human knowledge. Where he introduced famous Latin word, “cogito ergosum,” meaning “I think before I am.”


    Nadler, Steven. “Descartes, René.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 1 Oct. 2017.

    “René Descartes.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2017,

  • Joshua Acob

    Sept. 30, 2017 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Joshua Acob

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the Philosophers during the Enlightenment in Eighteen century in Europe. His first major philosophe was about science and art. He wrote an argument essay about how the progression of science and arts caused the corruption of virtue and mortality. This discourse won Rousseau fame and recognition. After the first essay he decided to do another one but it did not win him, but like the first, it still got him lots of recognition.

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s work claimed that human beings are basically good by nature, but we’re corrupted by the complex historical events that occurred and it resulted in present day civil society. Rousseau’s praise of nature is a theme that continues throughout his later works. The most significant of which include his comprehensive work on the philosophy of education, the Emile, and his major work on political philosophy, The Social Contract. Both published in 1762. These works caused great controversy in France and were immediately banned and censored by Paris government. After his work got banned, he moved and settled to Switzerland and continued his work.

    James J. Delaney. “Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712—1778).” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Accessed 30 Sept. 2017.

  • Nikki Espiritu

    Auguste Comte

    Isidore Marie Auguste Francois Xavier Comte ( Aughutst Comte ), was a French philosopher born in Jan.19,1798. Comte wanted to find the laws he believed conducted the evolution of mind. He had something called The Course of Positive Philoposhy where his “law of the three states” This law lead the thought that people try to understand phenomena in 3 different ways.The first thing Comte believed that people first look for was a supernatural explanation. The second thing was an abstract explanation, and finally the positive explanation. His belief for postive explanation creates a basis of positivism.

    Auguste Comte’s ideas have changed students thoughts about historical, social theory, and of criminology. He is usually regarded as the first philosopher of science.

  • Ej fajardo

    Rene Descartes’ philosophy was a start to modern philosophy in France. He changed the primary object of philosophical thought from ontology to epistemology because of his Meditations on First Philosophy. He was concerned when the uncertainty of sciences and skepticism spread across Europe.he wanted to find ground where all sciences could be placed and built. he rejected anything he was uncertain of.


    no name. “rene descartes” WIkipedia, sept 8 2017

  • Sean Gadi Falcon

    Pierre Bayle was a seventeenth century french skeptical philosopher and historian.He is born in November 18, 1647 in Carla Bayle. Bayle is traditionally described as a skeptic though the nature and extent of his skepticism remains holy debated. He is best known for his explicit defences of religious faith against the attacks of reason, for his attacks on specious theological doctrines, and for his formulation of the doctrine of the erring conscience as a basis of religious toleration

    Bayle’s Philosophy:
    Bayle appeared near the end of a long tradition of attempts to reconcile fundamental points of Christian Doctrine with fundamental principles of reason. In its strongest form, this tradition extended from the early christians, through the medevials and into the beginning of the eighteenth century. Among the classic problems were the doctrine of transubstantiation in the Eucharist, the doctrine of trinity and the existence of evil. In a world created by a benelovent God

    balye’s character website:

    Bayles philosophy website:

  • Emma W

    Voltaire, a French Philosopher from the 1700’s, became famous because of his attacks on the established Catholic Church. Also for his support for freedom of speech, religion and seperation of church and state. Voltaire died on May 30, 1778 at the age of 83.

    He wrote many things in many different literary forms. He wrote plays, poems, novels, essays, and scientific and historical works. He used his 83 years to write over 2,000 books and over 20,000 letters. He didn’t hide the fact he was an advocate of civil liberties, even if there was a risk. He wrote some to simply criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of the time he was living in.


  • Nazaria Saspa

    Philosophers have been around since forever, and have contributed greatly to society and impacted history. One well known philosopher, is Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a Frenchman. Being the most important writer during the Enlightenment, he was helped with the political conflicts that led straight to the French Revolution, a time where France was under greatly poor conditions. Before becoming a philosopher and reaching to his highest point, he started off as the secretary of the French ambassador. Later on, he entered a contest which was based off a question: If the revival of science and art were helping contribute to moral purification. After sending in his essay, he won, receiving the fame he oh so desired. He started writing that reflected the fact that he was trying to find his place in the world. Because of his work, Rousseau has helped impact education, literature, and politics.
    Rousseau’s ideas were written in several of his works. For example, he has written various essays criticising society. In one of his works, “Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality (1755)”, he reviled society for their lack of equality. One of his ideas expressed that everyone’s will should be heard by the government. Because of his belief that all forms of government would slowly but surely decline, he insisted to eradicate any forms of special interest groups. Because of his works and great opinions, he has inspired French leaders in the revolution, even Robespierre, Socialists, and Communists’ even. Overall, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the many great French philosophers during the French Revolution.

    Terrasse, Jean. “Rousseau, Jean-Jacques.” World Book Student, World Book, 2017, Accessed 29 Sept. 2017.

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