Calendar

December 2017
M T W T F S S
« Oct   Jan »
 123
45678910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031

‘Child Labour’ mini research post

Please post your research below on the region your group selected. Please list all group members at the top of the post with the title …….

Due Date: 9:00 pm, Friday December 15 

7 comments to ‘Child Labour’ mini research post

  • Navreen Bains, Joshua Acob, David Cerna

    Sudan’s Child Labour by Navreen Bains, Joshua Acob, and David Cerna

    What elements of child labour are we aiming to protect when we regulate child labour? How do the rights of children differ from general human rights?

    The rights of children differentiate than those of adults. Nowadays, we are thankful to officially state that children in Sudan have the right to protection, provision, and participation.

    Many rights have not come into place, as several children are taken out of their homes without a notification to the family. These children are forced to work without earning any wage while their parents search for them desperately and without hope. Reportedly, this can impact children’s physical and mental health. In conclusion, children don’t join the labour force to provide for themselves, though join as they’re forced to since it will benefit the economy. Some children are forced to become soldiers at an early age, meaning their chances of dying is more greater.

    Though Sudan has improved in terms of child labour in the slightest amount, it still requires big changes. Children of Sudan face many challenges causing It to be very difficult for them to develop since they don’t have the appropriate adults to rely on. We aim to progress throughout the years and protect their physical as well as mental health, future earnings, and to increase the protection one requires to keep themselves safe. Nearly half of the children in Sudan don’t attend school because they can’t afford it with their low income. After centuries of this absurd period of time, all children upto the age of 18 years old should be in schools, receiving an education. Also, these children must be kept away from exploitation, abuse and violence.These children need a proper environment in order to be better and give them the future they deserve.

    Bibliography:

    Bérenger, Valérie, and Audrey Verdier‐Chouchane. “Child Labour and Schooling in South Sudan and Sudan: Is There a Gender Preference?” African Development Review, 28 Oct. 2016, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/1467-8268.12200/full.

    Ltd, Not Panicking. “h2g2 The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy: Earth Edition.” h2g2 – The Crossroads: Reasons behind Child Labor in Sudan, h2g2.com/entry/A11675991.

    “CHILDREN IN SUDANSLAVES, Street Children and Child Soldiers.” Sudan, http://www.hrw.org/reports/1995/Sudan.htm.

  • Sam Girard

    Why Is Child Labour Relevant In Myanmar?

    Orphanages
    Most child labour in myanmar are usually in orphanages. One example of child labour in orphanages is in the Buddhist Sasana Yaung orphanage. Just in this one place there are 120 orphans all boys ageing from 5-15 years old. In the orphanage they are taught
    mathematics, science, and english. Even though the children have to do child labour they have a better chance of getting education in an orphanage. Some parents abandon their kids for their kids will have a chance of getting education and something to eat.
    http://www.childrendomatter.org

    Factories
    .H&M clothing are mostly made from myanmar that are employed with children,after several major brands switched their production to low cost factories in myanmar.Workers told investigators that they were paid half the full legal minimum wage! The Legal minimum wage is 3,600 kyat (3..18CAN) for eight hour day of work. The average basic standard of living is 6000 kyat a day. A lot of the workers were 14 years old even though they are allowed to work at this age if they have a note from the doctors saying they are healthy enough to work.

    Laws
    Under current law. Factories must pay workers overtime wages (double wages) when workers exceed 44hrs/week. Because of the rapid growth of the sector, garment factories sometimes find labour confinement problematic, as qualified sewers naturally seek out the highest paying positions available to them. In some factories, qualified sewers earn upwards of $180US per month (inclusive overtime). However in other factories sewers are paid as little as $30/month (non-inclusive of overtimes). This difference confuses many observers, both foreign and domestic. As Defined by national law, so long as the work is not harmful to children’s health or development, does not prejudice their attendance at school, their participation in vocational orientation or training programs or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received. Shall not exceed 48 hours per week for the work which has to be done continuously there must be a minimum 30 minutes interval after each 5 working hours. The combined working hours and interval times shall not exceed 10 hours per day. The working days shall not exceed 6 days per week.There must be one day holiday each week (Sunday). If Sunday service is required there must be a substitution of another day

    http://www.theguardian.com

    https://reliefweb.int/report/myanmar/labor-ministry-nearly-half-burma-s-12-million-child-workers-are-risk

    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lebanon-politics-saudi-france/lebanese-president-hopes-hariri-visit-to-france-will-end-crisis-idUSKBN1DG1KO
    http://www.childrendomatter.org
    Sam,Alpha,Muskaan

  • Alyssa Nguyen

    Child Labour in Afghanistan
    Alyssa N.
    Emma W.
    Ralph C.
    Why is child labour a problem in Afghanistan?
    Child labour is a problem in Afghanistan because many children live in poverty. Many children do not have families or they need the money to survive and the only way to do that is to work.

    Between 21-25% of kids are part of child labour by force, children are as young as 6. Potential jobs for children are working in bakeries, weaving, selling shopping bags, mining, washing cars, farming, and some even begged.
    Children worked up to 12 hours or more and get paid very little, or no pay at all. Many children worked in Brick factories in Kabul- tasks may lead to illnesses, injuries, or death. Many kids were forced to leave school because many had to make money for their families, half of the children would still attend school, but maintaining school and work was difficult. Poverty and gender bias caused two types of labour in Afghanistan also.

    The law in Afghanistan, the working age is 18 but since many children live in poverty and need money they were forced to work. It was illegal for anyone under 14 to work, but many families needed the money so they were forced to work, and the government did little to enforce the law. To this day Afghanistan remains one of the poorest country in the world.

  • Mariel Nanadiego

    By; Stella Mills,
    MJ Pamaong,
    Mariel Nanadiego.

    Why is child labour happening in Bangladesh?

    Bangladesh is one of poorest countries in the world.
    The average annual salary is just $640 with 50% of the population living below the international poverty line of $1.25 a day. Forcing many families to send their child to work at a very young age.

    Regulation/legislation

    Parents don’t often register their child’s birth, meaning they can lie about their age when getting a job.
    Although there are laws on the age children can work (as seen below) because 93% of child labourers work in the informal sector, the enforcement of labour laws is almost impossible.
    The Employment of Children Act 1938:
    Allowed children up to 15 to work the industries of railway and goods transportation. Also allowed those aged 15-17 to work night shifts lasting until morning under certain rules. Prohibited children under 12 working in hazardous industries.
    The Factories Act 1965
    Meant that children under 14 are prohibited to work or be present in factories, as well as different protections from dangerous machines/operations. Prohibited work hours longer than 5 between 7am-7pm and weight lifting limits for workers
    Shops and Establishment Act 1965
    Prohibited children under 12 from working in an establishment and limited working hours to 7 maximum.
    The Constitution Of People’s Republic of Bangladesh
    Guaranteed fundamental rights for all people and prohibited forced labour
    The Children Act 2013
    Repealed the inconsistent children act 1974. Deemed any person under 18 to be a child but had no specific provision against child labour
    Legal Working Age in Bangladesh
    Legal working age in bangladesh is 14. Most children work in small factories, workshops, on the street, in home based business and domestic employment

    Cheap labour
    Employees can pay children less and order them more because children often does not understand and/or their right.

    Child trafficking is strongly linked to child labor because children who are taken or sold are often exploited for cheap labor.

    Many families rely on the income generated by their children for survival, so child labour is often highly valued. Additionally, employers often prefer to employ children because they are cheaper and considered to be more compliant and obedient than adults.

    Poverty

    2014 Poverty rate chart Chad Haiti Nigeria Bangladesh Kenya Indonesia India China Brazil based on World Bank new 2011 PPP benchmarks
    Out of all the countries bangladesh is one of the most poor

    Because around 50% of the population is in poverty many children must work to provide for their families.

    Lack of education
    Basic education is not free and in more rural areas is hard to access.
    Even if children do have access to an education the quality of it may be poor.
    Education is often too expensive to afford.
    Without an education children are usually sent to work.
    One of the main problems of child labour is the lack of education
    In 2010 statistical report, 50% of all working children doesn’t go to school
    There are children while going to school, also work
    Children while going to school, also work
    Children’s performances are affected when they are forced to work

    POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO ELIMINATING CHILD LABOR
    There is no agreement about how to best respond to child labor. With so many challenges to overcome, is it even possible to eliminate child labor? Here are a few examples of some of the things that can be done:
    ■ Reduce poverty by increasing work and education opportunities for adults
    ■ Ensure that every child has access to free and quality education
    ■ Increase girls’ access to education
    ■ Provide catch-up classes for out-of-school children
    ■ Invest in teacher training
    ■ Create programs that provide economic incentives for families to send their children to school, such as providing stipends or food rations
    ■ Enforce child labor laws and strengthen international standards
    ■ Raise public awareness about child rights
    ■ Establish affordable child care programs

    Bibliography

    CHILD LABOR. CONCERN WorldWide, 2008, gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Child-Labor.pdf.
    https://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Child-Labor.pdf
    Siddique, Naser. “Bangladesh.” UNICEF Bangladesh – The Children – Child Labour, © UNICEF, 2008, http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/children_4863.html.
    https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/children_4863.html

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_labour_in_Bangladesh

  • Nazaria Saspa

    Group Members: Nazaria, Precious, Omar NIGERIA

    Question: How has the Nigerian government helped or affected the topic, Child Labour?

    N:

    – Nigerian government made 3 International Labour Organizations (ILO) to set minimum age for employment of children
    – sea industry, underground industry
    – signed an understatement to eliminate child labour, in August 2003
    – ex: IPEC, International Programme for Elimination of Child Labour
    – passed Child Act Rights Sections28 and 29
    – implemented West Africa Coco Agriculture Project (WACAP)
    – some states banned children from working during school hours
    – ex: Anambra State
    – African Network for the Protection against Prevention of all forms of Child Labour, Nigerian Chapter, built two centres to monitor child protection in Enugu
    – Port Itarcourt or ANPPCAN

    P:

    – Children even work by quarrying granite and gravel, commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and armed conflict
    – approximately 15 million children under 14 are working across Nigeria
    – oil boom in 1970’s increased drove millions of children into labour
    – 8 million manage to stay in school and work in spare time
    – public work places: street vendors (64%), scavengers (5%), beggars (13%), feet washers (8%), shoe shinners (4%), car washers/watchers (6%)
    – cottage industries and mechanic workshops: carpenters (14%), bus conductors (7%), weavers (14%), iron/metal works (6%), hairdressers (18%), caterers (8%)

    O:

    – Nigeria contains 25% of child labour in the world
    – 86% confirmed they see children engaged in physical jobs
    – 68 street working
    – 31% street begging/roaming
    – 26% house work
    – 14% manual jobs

    CITATION: – UNICEF. “The children.” UNICEF Nigeria – The children – Child labour, 14 Nov. 2017, 1:17PM, http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/children_1935.html.
    – Hibbert, Adam. Childrens rights. Sea-to-Sea Publications, 2005.
    – bme.org

  • Sean falcon

    Child Labour in INDIA
    FOCUS QUESTION:
    What are the causes of child labour in India?
    Members:Jasmine Kailey,Karishma Kumar,Sean Falcon
    Some causes of Child Labour in India is because of poverty and social lac of security in India.This is one of the biggest and main cause of child labour,Girls from ages 7-14 get more work in India and children in this age group gets affected the most.This van lead to a lot of health complications.Parents make their children work because some families are very poor and need money for food,Another cause for child labour in India is because of the expense for their education,or if they want to follow their dreams. Children that have lack of good education don’t get good job opportunities in the future

    Causes of child labour in India:
    -Girls age 7-14 got more work in India
    -Children in this age group gets affected the most
    -India is sadly home to the largest number of child labourers in the world
    -Poverty and lack of social security are one of the main cause for child labour
    -Child labour that is caused in India is because of the expense for their education,or if they want to follow their dreams

    Effects of child labour in India:
    -If the child doesn’t work there wont be enough food for the family
    -the effects of child labour leads to a lot of health complications
    -Children will have lack of emotional growth and will end up going through mental trauma because of the unfavourable working hours
    -Children who have a lack of good education do not have very good job opportunities

    Child labour is really a big thing in India but there are ways that can stop child labour
    you can help them by volunteering programs or you can donate money it will be a big help
    to them and for their future

    website
    https://www.poverties.org/blog/child-labour-in-india
    htpps://www.importantindia.com/25558/child-labour-effects-solution/

  • Noor Hingora & Riea Singh

    How Is Morocco Solving Child Labour?
    By: Riea and Noor

    One of the world`s biggest and saddest problems is child labour. Child labour is a very unfortunate problem and those of us who do not have to undergo these problems are very fortunate. Every morning thousands of children wake up to a day full of long hours of labour and work. In Morocco alone there are 86,000 children employed. From the early age of 7, children work to provide for their families and people who cannot work. 94% of children in rural areas work in agriculture and forestry and 87.7% of children in cities work an industry-related job. Fortunately in this darkness there is still some stars of hope left and Morocco is trying to help these innocent children and get them an education. For our child labour project are question is How and What Morocco Is Doing To Help End Child Labour, and today we will see just exactly how much Morocco is helping and what more it needs to do to help.
    -NOOR

    Morocco`s population of people living under the poverty line is 4 million. In addition of that 3 million are residing on the rural parts of Morocco. Undoubtedly rural parts are very hard to reside in because of the lack of fertile soil.Approximately, 40% of Morocco`s population is in the agriculture industry, making Morocco it`s countries colossal employer. However the mountainous geography makes this industry hard to work in. Since the land in Morocco is expensive it`s hard to have sizable crops to sustain food to eat and sell, and to live in their own houses. Usually people are forced to live in slums. Calabasas slums are one of the many slums in Morocco with 8,000 people occupying it. It costs around 1,000 dirhams which is equivalent to $155 for each month. The small “apartment” has two small rooms with a kitchen. Since there are so may people in such a restricted space, the passage ways to get to your “apartment” is like a maze. Passages are about 70 cm wide, making it extremely difficult to squish through. Abdellatif Rachid, a “Justice and Development Party” deputy said, “The dead are carried out od here vertically from the houses before being driven to the cemetery.” That being said, Morocco needs to change drastically to solve issues involving poverty before it gets worse. They can help by making more and better shelters for people to live in so that they can avoid their people from getting sick and keep them healthy enough to work. This will not only benefit the people but help them to avoid sending their children to work and instead they can send them to school for an education.
    -RIEA

    Even though child labour is a major problem, it is also the only hope for people whose only sources of help are their children. Because of this problem, Morocco is doing their best to pass laws and make conditions, so that children can both, go to school and got to work to provide for their families. UNICEF in the mid-2000`s had successfully persuaded artisans to not employ children under 12. They have also tried to persuade them to release older children for at least a few hours of schooling each week. Morocco is also trying to make factory conditions less harmful and more spacious. They are trying to make their work places bigger and are trying to avoid giving dangerous types of works to smaller children. By doing this they intend on death/ injury risks to get lower and for children to be able to get educated. With a good education, children can get real jobs and make enough money to support them and their families. We hope that hopefully one day child labour will be a thing of the past.
    -NOOR

    *CITATIONS*

    -https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/culture/2013/04/casblanca-slums-poverty.html

    -https://www.borgenmagazine.com/poverty-morocco-rural-dilemma/

    -in.https://en.wikepedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Morocco

    -https://www.economist.com/na/pritedition/2017-11-18

Leave a Reply

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>

  

  

  


*